(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The larvæ of the British butterflies and moths"

•; 



m 








ogqggqj' 








XQwX 



4 






<2 -^ 



rp 



'Q/UjxjL ^eA&Aryrtfo^c 



^ihrarg of % Htusmm 



OP 



COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY, 

AT HARVARD COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 
jFounUetr fcg Jtfoate subscription, m 1861. 

Deposited by ALEX. AGASSIZ. 



No. H, fff 




./U-, /g?3 



I 



THE 



EAT SOCIETY. 

6? 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLIV. 




This volume is issued to the Subscribers to the Ray Society for 

the Year 1891. 



LO NDON 



MDCCCXCIII. 



THE LARVAE 



OF THE 



BKITISH BUTTERFLIES 



AND 



MOTHS. 



BY 

(the late) 

WILLIAM BUCKLER, 



EDITED (IN PART) BY (THE LATE) 

H. T. STAINTON, F.R.S. 



Vol. V. 
(THE SECOND POETION OF THE NOCTXL2E.) 



LONDON: 
PRINTED EOR THE EAY SOCIETY. 



MDCCCXC1JI. 



MCZ LIBRARY 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

CAMBRIDGE. MA USA 



PRINTED BY ADLARD AND SON, 
BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE, E.C., AND 20, HANOYER SQUARE, W. 



PREFACE. 



The delay in the appearance of this volume has 
been almost entirely occasioned by difficulties experi- 
enced in connection with hand- colouring the plates. 

At the commencement of Mr. Stainton's long and, 
as it unhappily proved, fatal illness, the plates were 
already all lithographed, and he was able to begin the 
copying out of the manuscript for, the letterpress, but 
could not proceed far with it. The task was com- 
pleted by Mr. W. D. Koebuck of Leeds, under the 
supervision of Mr. G. T. Porritt of Huddersfield, so 
well known for his experience regarding the Larvse of 
British Macro-Lepidoptera. Mr. Porritt has kindly 
undertaken to edit the remaining volumes in succession 
to Mr. Stainton, and he has already in hand Vol. VI, 
which will complete the Noctuse. 

For many reasons it is desirable that the colouring 
of the plates should be continued by the same artist, 
but if any serious delay again occur, arrangements 
for expediting the work will have serious attention. 

In the present volume it will be seen that the number 
of British species, of which no figure whatever was 
made by the late Mr. Buckler, is comparatively small. 
But the descriptive text is necessarily incomplete, for 
no descriptions of many of the species were published 
by him, nor do they occur in his Note Books, nor, with 
few exceptions, amongst the published descriptions by 
the late Mr. Hellins. A few of the missing descrip- 
tions have been supplied from those published by 
Mr. Porritt. 

R. MoLaohlan, Treasurer, 
Thos. Wiltshire, Secretary. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. V. 



• 








TAGE 


Agrotis puta . . . . . .1 


— hmigera 








. 3 


— exclamationis 








. 7 


— corticea 








. 9 


— cinerea 








. 12 


— cursoria 








. 17 


— nigricans 




N 




. 19 


— aquilina 








. 20 


— obelisca 








. 21 


— ravida . 








. 22 


Triphaena subsequa 








. 25 


— orbona 








. 28 


— pronuba 








. 29 


Noctua ditrapezium 








. 32 


— conflua 








. 34 


— Dahlii . 








. 37 


— bella . 








. 40 


— umbrosa 








. 41 


— sobrina 








.45 


Pachnobia alpina . 








. 48 


Taeniocampa gothicina 








. 53 


— leucographa 








. 54 


— opima . 








. 54 


— gracilis 








. 57 


— cruda . 








. 58 


Orthosia snspecta . 








. 59 


Anchocelis rufina . 








. 62 


— lunosa . 








. 65 


— litura . 








. 66 


Dasycampa rubignea 








. 69 


Xanthia citrago 








. 72 


— cerago . 








. 73 


— flavago 








. 76 



Vlll 



CONTENTS OF VOL. V, 





PAGE 


Xanthia gilvago 


. 76 


— ferruginea 


. 78 


Cirrhsedia xerampelina 


. 78 


Tethea retusa . 


. 80 


Euperia fulvago 


. 81 


Dicycla Oo 


. 83 


Cosmia diffinis 


. 85 


— affinis . 


. 86 


List of Parasites 


. 87 


Index . 


. 90 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES 



IN THIS VOLUME. 



HETEROCERA. 



Group NOCTUINA. 



PAGE 



PLATE 



Family Noctuid^. 






Rusina tenebrosa . 


• • . 


LXX, fig. 1 


Agrotis valligera . 


. 


LXX, fig. 2 


„ puta 


1 


LXX, fig. 3 


„ suffusa . 




LXX, fig. 4 


„ saucia . . 




LXX, fig. 5 


„ segetum . 


, . • 


LXXI, fig. 1 


„ lunigera . 


3 


LXXI, fig. 2 


„ exclamationis 


7 


LXXI, fig. 3 


„ corticea . 


9 


LXXI, fig. 4 


„ cinerea . 


12 


LXXI, fig. 5 


„ ripse 




LXXI, fig. 6 


„ cursoria . 


17 


LXXI, fig. 7 


,, nigricans 


19 


LXXII, fig. 1 


„ tritici 


• • 


LXXII, fig. 2 


„ aquilina . 


20 


LXXII, fig. 3 


„ obelisca . 


21 


LXXII, fig. 4 


,, agathina 




LXXII, fig. 5 


„ porphyrea 




LXXIII, fig. 1 


„ prsecox . 




LXXIII, fig. 2 


„ ravida . 


22 


LXXIII, fig. 3 


„ lucernea . 


• • 


LXXIII, fig. 4 


„ Ashworthii 


. • • 


LXXIII, fig. 5 


Tripha3na ianthina 


. . 


LXXIY, fig. 1 


„ fimbria 


■ . • 


LXXI V, fig. 2 


„ interjecta . . . . 


• .. 


LXXIY, fig. 3 


„ subsequa . . 


25 


LXXIY, fig. 4 


VOL. V. 




b 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES. 



PAGE 



PLATE 



Family Nocttjid^j (continued). 








Triphama orbona . . . 28 


LXXIY, fig. 3 


„ pronuba 






29 


LXXV, fig. 1 


Noctua glareosa . 






■ 


LXXV, fig. 2 


„ depuncta 






. 


LXXV, fig. 3 


„ augur . 






. 


LXXY, fig. 4 


„ plecta 






. 


LXXV, fig. 5 


„ c -nigrum 






. 


LXXVT, fig. 1 


„ ditrapezium 






32 


LXXVI, fig. 2 


„ triangulum 






. , 


LXXVI, fig. 4 


„ rhomboidea 






, , 


LXXVI, fig. 3 


„ brunnea 






, , 


LXXVI, fig. 5 


„ f estiva . 






, , 


LXXVII, fig. 1 


„ conflua . 






34 


LXXVII, fig. 2 


, , Dahlii . 






37 


LXXVII, fig. 3 


„ bella 






40 


LXXVIII, fig. 1 


„ umbrosa . 






41 


LXXVIII, fig. 2 


baja 






. 


LXXVIII, fig. 3 


„ sobrina . 






45 


LXXIX, fig. 1 


„ neglecta . 






• 


LXXIX, fig. 2 


„ xanthographa 




• 


LXXIX, fig. 3 


Family Orthosid^. 




Trachea piniperda « . ■ . 


LXXX, fig. 1 


Pachnobia alpina 




48 


LXXX, fig. 2 


Tseniocampa gothica 




53 


LXXX, fig. 3 




, leucographa 




54 


LXXX, fig. 4 




, rubricosa 




,, 


LXXX, fig. 5 


, , 


, instabilis 




, 


LXXXI, fig. 1 




, opima 




54 


LXXXI, fig. 2 




, populeti . 






.. 


LXXXI, fig. 3 




, stabilis . 






, , 


LXXXI, fig. 4 




, gracilis . 






57 


LXXXI, fig. 5 




, miuiosa 






, , 


LXXXI, fig. 6 




, munda . 






, , 


LXXXII, fig. 1 




, cruda 






58 


LXXXII, fig. 2 


Orthosia suspecta 






59 


LXXXII, fig. 3 


„ upsilon 






. 


LXXXII, fig. 4 


„ lota 






, 


LXXXII, fig. 5 


„ macilenta . 






, , 


LXXXII, fig. 6 


Anchocelis rufina 






62 


LXXXIII, fig.l 


„ pistacina 






.. 


LXXXIII, fig. 2 


„ lunosa 






65 


LXXXIII, fig. 3 


„ litura 






66 


LXXXIII, fig. 4 


Oerasti 


s vaccinii . 






.. 


LXXXIII, fig. 5 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES. 



XI 





PAGE 


PLATE 


Family Orthosid^ (continued) — 






Cerastis spadicea 




LXXXIII, fig. 6 


Scopelosoma satellitia 




LXXXIY, fig. 1 


Dasycampa rubiginea . 


69 


LXXXIV, fig. 2 


Hoporina croceago 




LXXXIV, fig. 3 


Xanthia citrago . 


72 '.. 


LXXXIV, fig. 4 


„ cerago . 


73 


LXXXIV, fig. 5 


„ flavago (silago) 


76 


LXXXIV, fig. 6 


„ aurago . 




LXXXIV, fig. 7 


„ gilvago . 


76 


LXXXV, fig. 1 


„ ferruginea 


78 


LXXXV, fig. 2 


Cirrcedia xerampelina 


78 


LXXXV, fig. 3 


Family CosMma:. 






Tethea subtusa . 




LXXXV, fig. 4 


,, retusa . 


80 


LXXXV, fig. 5 


Euperia fulvago . 


81 


LXXXVI, fig. 1 


Dicycla Oo . 


83 


: LXXXVI, fig/2 


Cosmia trapezina 




LXXXVI, fig. 3 


„ diffinis . 


85 


LXXXVI, fig. 4 


„ affinis . 


86 


LXXXVI, fig. 5 



THE IjAHVM 



OF THE 



BKITISH MOTHS 



Agrotis puta. 
Plate LXX, fig. 3. 



Thanks to the kindness of the Rev. J. Hellins 
and Dr. Hearder, the larva of Agrotis puta, that 
has so long remained unknown, is now figured and 
described. 

Eggs were sent by Dr. Hearder to Mr. Hellins, 
August 29th, 1867, from which larvae were hatched, 
September 2nd, and, as they showed at first a pre- 
ference for lettuce, they were reared on that plant, 
varied occasionally with slices of the root of garden 
carrot. 

Mr. Hellins tried some of them in a flower-pot with 
growing plants of dandelions and knot-grass, both of 
which plants were eaten, but apparently not so freely 
as the lettuce ; but the worst part of the business was 
that the soil in the pot was infested with little earth- 
leeches, which destroyed most of the larvse. The 
rest were treated in the same manner as we had 
been accustomed to deal with A. rijpse ; i.e., placed 
in a large pot with a quantity of sea-sand, their food 
vol .v. 1 



2 AGEOTIS PUTA. 

being laid on the surface, and here they prospered 
satisfactorily. 

On October 21st, some had grown about five-eighths 
of an inch long, and at that date figures were taken, 
and again on November 1 4th, when the most advanced 
had attained its maximum growth of one inch and one- 
eighth in length. On the 24th December I had more 
examples of similar dimensions. 

The larva has a small head and anal segment, the 
body being plump and cylindrical, with a rather semi- 
circular inflation on the region of each spiracle ; the 
segmental divisions deeply cut ; the legs and pro-legs 
small in proportion. 

The colour of the back is at first dark ochreous 
brown, but changes gradually with its growth to 
brownish ochreous or dull ochreous ; this tint is 
bounded on either side by the dark brown edge of the 
sub-dorsal line ; there is a delicate mottling of rather 
darker brown, of a pear shape, on each segment, its 
broad end in front, through which runs the dorsal 
line, which is of the brown colour (paler when the 
larva is quite full-grown), and is very thin at the 
beginning but expands almost into an elongated 
diamond form at the end of each segment, and is dis- 
tinctly edged with darker brown, particularly at its 
widest part. 

The sub-dorsal line is dark brown, having close 
beneath it a mere thread of very pale greenish-grey ; 
and from this to the spiracles, the sides are greyish 
brown; another pale thread, much interrupted, running 
a little above the spiracles. 

Below the spiracles is a very faint trace of a double 
dirty whitish line, all the rest of the lower and under 
surface being a pale greenish-grey tint and semi- 
translucent. 

The head brown, the lobes and mouth marked with 
darker brown, and very shining. A dark brown plate 
on the second segment having three pale longitudinal 
lines. 



AGROTIS PUTA. 6 

The spiracles are black, and the tubercular warty 
dots very dark brown, each furnished with a very 
minute short hair. 

On the 14th January, 1868, 1 observed one larva no 
more than half-grown, whilst the full-grown larvas had 
lost much of their distinctive markings by becoming 
more unicolorous in tint, a proof of their being now 
full-fed. (W. B., E.M.M., IV, 199, February, 1868.) 



Agrotis lunigera. 
Plate LXXI, fig. 2. 

Some years ago Mr. W. Farren obtained a few eggs 
from a pinned ¥ of this species, which were laid on 
the cork of his collecting-box, and he cut them out 
and kindly sent them to me ; but as they hatched in 
transit, I failed in attempting to rear them. 

It is now with the greatest satisfaction that I am 
enabled to describe this larva, thanks to the persevering 
exertions of Mr. Thomas Terry in rearing a few eggs, 
obtained in a similar way, from a ? that had pre- 
viously been poisoned and pinned. 

The young larvae, when first hatched, and until 
after their third moult, were supplied with grasses, 
dock, dandelion, and other food ; but they fed only on 
the dandelion, and preferred the withered leaves, per- 
forating them with small round holes. When they 
came into my possession, I supplied them with Poly- 
gonum, aviculare, which they attacked ravenously, and 
would never after eat dandelion. Their growth and 
condition became so satisfactory, that I have no doubt 
this is one of their natural food-plants. 

They were sent to me on the 21st of last August, 
being then three lines long, and in six days were half 
an inch, and by the 8th of September one inch in 
length and thick in proportion : they evinced great 
aversion to light, and a desire for burrowing. 



4 AGROTIS LTJNIGERA. 

When half an inch long, they were pale ochreous or 
flesh colour on the back, the sides greyish-green, their 
bellies of the same tint, but paler, and on the back of 
each segment a V-like mark of brown, inverted, with 
the apex in front, through which passed the pale buff 
dorsal line, most conspicuous through the black plate 
on the second segment. On the two sides of the 
inverted V mark were placed the usual four tubercular 
warts, black and large in proportion, and very con- 
spicuous. 

When they had attained an inch in length, the 
inverted V marks had disappeared, and the larvae 
had become much darker ; the central part of the 
back on each segment mottled with dark brown, in 
the form of a diamond with the points cut off: ; the 
spaces next the sub-dorsal line buff colour, and wedge- 
shaped. 

The dorsal line conspicuously sulphur-yellow on the 
black shining plate of the second segment only, while 
on all the other segments scarcely noticeable, and 
chiefly at the commencement of each, as rather paler 
brown than the mottled portions it runs through. 

The anal segment buff colour, forming a conspicuous 
pale mark above the flap. 

The sides blackish-green, bounded above by the sub- 
dorsal line of rather darker hue, and below by the 
black spiracles and usual warty tubercles; the sub- 
dorsal line is edged below by a fine thread of dirty 
whitish-green, and another such fine line, but undu- 
lating and interrupted, runs between it and the 
spiracles. Above the legs is a pale, thin, dirty whitish 
line ; the belly and legs slightly darker, of a greenish- 
drab tint ; the ventral pro-legs more beneath the body 
than usual; all the tubercular warts blackish, large, 
and shining. The head mottled-brownish, with a 
large black blotch on each side of the crown. 

When the larvae were an inch and a quarter long, 
and even a trifle longer, their details of markings and 
colours were just the same, but more intense and 



AGROTIS LTJNIGERA. 5 

bright ; the larva3 were then in their best coats, and 
very thick and plump. Soon after, about the middle 
of September, on attaining their maximum length — an 
inch and a half when stretched out — their colours and 
markings began gradually to fade away into a monotonous 
dirty brown on the back, with greyish sides, and their 
condition was less plump; the tubercular warts changed 
to brown rings, enclosing buff dots, the hair or bristles 
from each only visible through a powerful lens ; and by 
the end of October they began to diminish in length, 
with other manifestations of turning to pupa. 
(W. B., E.M.M., III, 188, January, 1867.) 

On the 6th August, 1875, I received from Mr. J. G. 
Ross, of Bathampton, twelve eggs, part of a batch 
laid by a $ A. lunigera captured on July 26th, and 
which began laying August 2nd. 

The eggs on arrival were of a dirty white, and in 
the course of a few days began to show a faint pinkish 
zone round the middle, and a spot of pinkish on 
the top. 

The egg is small, circular, rounded at top, and a 
little flattened beneath ; on the 12th August two of 
the eggs began to turn grey, becoming lead colour on 
the 13th, when they began to hatch. 

The newly-hatched larva is greenish-grey, with a 
dark brown head. On the 19th they had become of a 
pale brownish-och'reous colour, with the head brown, 
and a small brown plate on the second segment, and 
minute dark brown tubercular dots ; they fed on knot- 
grass. 

On the 28th the tubercular dots appeared more 
plainly on a still rather ochreous ground-colour, and 
a distinct whitish dorsal line was visible. On Sep- 
tember 6th they had grown to rather more than a 
quarter of an inch in length, and were much darker 
in colour ; they were now ochreous-brown on the back, 
with an ochreous dorsal line and a wedge-shaped mark 
at the hinder part of each segment on either side, the 
point of the wedge touching the hinder tubercular dot 



6 AGROTIS LUNIGEKA. 

of the trapezoid als, and from these a darkish brown 
imperfect chevron passes with its apex in front at the 
beginning of each segment, but intersected by the 
uninterrupted paler dorsal line finely edged with dark 
brown, the ground being freckled with darker; the 
sides of the larva brownish-grey, with the usual some- 
what interrupted pale lines very faint, the sub-spira- 
cular stripe pale greyish, all the tubercular warts black 
and shining, and large in proportion ; a large black- 
brown blotch on each lobe of the shining head, and a 
shining black-brown plate, divided by a pale dorsal 
line, on the second segment. 

As only two of the eggs had hatched with me, and 
Mr. Ross had no better luck, he kindly sent me two 
larvse at this date, and now the four larvse began to 
grow well, and in addition to knot-grass, which soon 
began to lose its succulence, I added leaves of 
Plantago major, which they seemed to like equally 
well, and by the middle of October it became their 
only food. Towards the end of the month they were 
looking their best, with their glossy skins of dark 
greyish-greenish at their sides, more brownish on the 
back, the chevrons long since vanished, but the rather 
pale ochreous wedges and the patch of this colour on 
the anal segment still remained and the dark blackish- 
brown tubercular warty dots were still conspicuous; the 
hinder pairs of the trapezoidals larger than the front 
pairs and the one behind each spiracle larger than the 
one above : the spiracles small and black ; the head 
had a large blackish blotch on the crown of each lobe, 
which split into two streaks down the front and side, 
and a separate shorter streak was on the back of the 
cheek, and a spot or dash in the triangular space 
above the mouth. 

The pale lines above described were very ragged 
and interrupted in character, not showing within any 
of the deep wrinkles ; below the spiracles the colour- 
ing was of a very pale dirty whitish-drab, or greenish 
tint, having a double ragged interrupted line beneath 



AGR0TIS LUNIGERA. 7 



the spiracles, and here the tubercular dots were paler 
than those on the back. The larvae were then from 
one inch three-eighths to one inch and a half in length, 
thick and stout in proportion. 

At the beginning of November I gave them some 
fine loose soil to burrow in, continuing to supply 
plantain and a little chickweed, of which lattert hey 
ate but sparingly, evidently preferring the plantain. 

From this time the larvae came up out of the soil 
but seldom until January, when they ate and tunnelled 
through some pieces of carrot, with which they were 
supplied all through February. (W. B., 1875, Note 
Book III, 21, 22, 52, 53.) 



Agrotis exolamationis. 
Plate LXXI, fig. 3. 

A female moth taken at sugar, June 13th, 1874, 
by the Rev. A. Fuller, began to lay eggs on a piece of 
leno on the 14th, and continued till the 22nd, when 
she died after depositing 171 eggs. 

The egg is of considerable size for an Agrotis, being 
larger than that of A. saucia ; it is rounded above and 
flattened beneath, thickly ribbed, and with fine reticu- 
lations. When first laid it is whitish and semi-opaque 
but changes in a few hours to a more glistening dirty 
flesh-colour ; by the fifth day the opacity had gra- 
dually become greater than at first, and a dull purplish- 
pink blotch appeared at the top, and a narrow zone* 
at a short interval below ; this narrow zone is in most 
instances a little blotched irregularly. 

These eggs changed colour to an opaque pinkish-grey 
on the 26th of June and began to hatch early the follow- 
ing morning, all the larvse being out of their shells by 
the evening of the 29th. 

The newly -hatched larvae were pale greyish, with 
blackish-brown heads and plate on second segment, 



8 AGROTIS EXCLAMATIONIS. 

and brownish tubercular dots and hairs; they were 
supplied with grass and plantain, the latter being 
preferred. By the 8th of July most of the larvae 
were two and a half lines in length, with brown 
heads and bodies of a light dirty greenish-brown, 
deepest in tint on the back, with a distinct paler 
dorsal line and dark brown tubercular dots having 
quite a miniature appearance of the adult larva. For 
a week they had only had Plantago major, but now 
I offered them some Ghenopodium album, which they 
seemed greatly to prefer. By the 20th July they had 
become half an inch long, and of their characteristic 
warm brown colour. 

I now again changed their food and gave them 
plantain and pieces of carrot, which seemed to suit 
them better than the Chenopodium, and by August 
24th, they were seven-eighths of an inch in length, 
and perhaps at the best time for observing their 
characteristic markings ; the ground colour being a 
rather warm brown, varying in intensity a little in 
individuals, some being rather paler than others, but 
the brood otherwise being very constant in colour and 
design. 

Down the middle of the back on each segment is a 
pear-shaped blotch of darker brown, composed of 
freckles, the broad end of the pear in front ; through 
these the dorsal line can scarcely be traced beyond the 
thoracic segments, although it begins on the second 
segment by dividing the shining dark plate there, as 
a distinctly paler line, outlined with dark-brown, but 
on the third and fourth segments it soon becomes 
suffused with the ground colour, and its course thence 
is but faintly indicated by the dark outlines, which can 
best be discerned at the end of a segment ; the sub- 
dorsal line is of darkish brown above and rather 
festooned in its course, thinly edged beneath with a 
faint paler line, which is followed by a broader line of 
darkish freckles, and then by a paler line of the ground 
colour, and this in turn by a stripe of darker freckles, 



AGR0TIS EXCLAMATION [S. 9 

on the lower edge of which the spiracles are situated ; 
beneath these after a line of ground colour is a paler 
or dirty whitish line followed by the drab-coloured 
ground of the belly. 

Note that the ground colour of the back, as far as 
the spiracles, is a warm brown, of a lighter or darker 
tint ; the ground colour of the lower surface below 
the spiracles is drab, paler than the back. 

The head is of a brownish-drab, darkest about the 
mouth, with a blackish-brown streak down the front of 
each lobe ; on the second segment the shining plate 
is margined in front with dark brown, through which 
runs the pale line before mentioned. 

The tubercular or warty dots or trapezoidals of the 
back are dark-brown, the hinder pairs a little larger 
than the front pairs ; those on the sides are rather 
paler brown, and those below the spiracles still paler, 
and each bearing a short bristly hair. The spiracles 
are quite black and furnish the important character by 
which at a glance this larva can be distinguished from 
its congener A. segetum, as in A. exclamationis, the 
spiracles are never smaller but generally larger than 
the wart-like dots immediately above and behind 
them. 

The warm brown of the back (without regard to 
depth of tint) without a tinge of grey or green may 
help us to determine this larva, but an infallible guide 
is found in the extra large spiracles which distinguish 
A. exclamationis. 

By the 2nd of September all but one individual had 
died off. (W. B., 1874, Note Book II, 76-78.) 



Agrotis cortioea. 

Plate LXXI, fig. 4. 

Few things have afforded me greater satisfaction 
than my having been able to figure and describe, I 



10 AGROTIS CORTICEA. 

believe for the first time, the larva of this species — 
one of those subterranean, dull-coloured larvse, several 
species of which may so easily be mistaken one for 
another. 

To Mr. George Norman, of Forres, my best thanks 
are due for the supply of eggs, which reached me 
July 17th, 1870. The larvae were hatched between 
the 20th and 25th of the same month ; those which I 
kept under my own care had grown to the length of 
half an inch by August 15th, and by October 5th to 
one inch and three-eighths, and, soon after November 
commenced, left off feeding, being, as I thought, 
ready for pupation ; however, for some reason unknown 
to me, they all died without changing. 

Meanwhile, the larvae of which Mr. Hellins took 
charge grew more slowly, not being more than three- 
quarters of an inch in length when their hybernation 
commenced, and, luckily, several of them survived the 
winter ; these began to feed again in March, moulted 
about the beginning of April, and were full-fed from 
about the end of April to the middle of May. The 
moths appeared between the 17th of Juue and 6th of 
July. 

The egg is somewhat the shape of an orange, but 
with its under-side more flattened, with irregular, 
shallow ribs and reticulations over its surface, and a 
central boss or knob in a little depression on the top. 
It is straw-coloured at first, afterwards of a flesh colour, 
with pale brown zone or blotches. 

When first hatched, the larva is of a greenish-grey, 
with blackish-brown head and plate behind it, the 
usual dots black, and furnished with hairs. After 
feeding for a few days, it becomes of a greenish- 
ochreous tint, and in another week of a greenish- olive, 
one example alone at this stage having been of a 
reddish-grey ; the dots raised, and still furnished with 
noticeable hairs. 

Up to this time, and for a few days longer, we found 
the habit of this larva was to feed uncovered on any 



AGROTIS CORTIOEA. 11 

of the various fleshy-leaved plants offered to it, at 
first eating only the cuticle, but soon making holes in the 
leaves of Chenopodium album, Polygonum, clover, etc., 
but when the length of half an inch, or thereabouts, 
had been attained, and the usual Agrotis appearance 
put on, it began to burrow in the loose soil, hiding by 
day, and coming out to feed at night. Later in the 
year, and again in the spring, the food supplied was 
dock, mullein, hollyhock, and slices of carrot ; and in 
dull weather, if fresh food was put on the surface of 
the soil, and shaded from the light by leaves thrown 
over it, we found it would be eaten as readily by day 
as by night. From the time the larva is about half an 
inch in length, up to about an inch, its colour is 
ochreous, with a dark double dorsal line, and two 
lines on each side ; the usual warts small and dark 
brown. 

After its final moult, it comes out at first very much 
darker than before, with quite a noticeable appearance 
of sootiness over it ; all the lines being purplish -black, 
and much diffused ; the skin also presents quite a 
rough surface, and although this is afterwards partly 
lost, it yet remains as a distinguishing feature to 
the end. 

When full-grown, the larva is one and three- eighths 
to one and five-eighths inches in length, according to 
measurement in repose or motion; rather thick in 
proportion, cylindrical, and rugose ; all the legs short 
and placed well under the body ; in fact, it much 
resembles A. segetum, save in the rugosity, and in the 
further distinction, that whereas the back in A. segetum 
is coloured differently from the sides, in A. corticea the 
colour is spread uniformly over both alike ; the ground 
colour then of the full-grown larva is brownish-grey, 
finely freckled with a rather darker tint of the same ; 
the belly and pro-legs with a slight greenish tinge, and 
unfreckled ; the dorsal vessel is of the ground colour, 
scarcely paler, enclosed within two lines of darker 
brown. The subdorsal is a dark line of grey -brown, 



12 AGROTIS CORTICEA. 

with a fine thread of paler along its lower edge, 
followed at a little distance by another such pale and 
rather thicker line, though much interrupted or broken 
by the deep wrinkles of the skin ; at some distance 
below this runs the subspiracular stripe of the same 
paler greyish-brown, with a streak of the ground 
colour through the middle of it. The head has the 
front margins of the lobes broadly streaked with 
blackish, and a little at the sides also, and the mouth 
is large and sometimes blackish ; the plate on the 
second segment is not so noticeable as usual in this 
genus by any difference in colour, though it is a little 
darker brown towards the margin in front ; the dorsal 
and subdorsal paler threads are faintly seen to pass 
through it. 

As the larva approaches full-growth the skin becomes 
somewhat shining, and the warts which immediately 
after the last moult came out black, grow paler in the 
centre, and are of a dark brown all round it, each still 
furnished with a short, fine bristle ; the black spiracles 
are rather small in size. 

As noticed before, the general appearance is more 
unicolorous than that of any species of Agrotis I have 
yet seen. 

The pupa is of the ordinary Agrotis form, rather 
stout, and very smooth ; at first whitish, and changing 
by degrees to a light orange-brown. (W. B., July, 
1871 ; E.M.M., VIII, 89, September, 1871.) 



Agrotis cinerea. 
Plate LXXI, fig. 5. 

On the 6th of June, 1882, I received from Mr. 
W. H. Ballett Fletcher, then at Oaklands, Hailsham, 
Sussex, sixteen eggs of this species, part of a batch 
laid by a captured moth. 

The egg is globular or hemispherical, and ribbed 



AGROTIS OINERBA. IS 

with about thirty ribs, some shorter than others, which 
reach to a circular raised ring at the top ; the base of 
the egg flat ; it is most minutely reticulated ; as it 
matures, the colour changes to a very pale pinkish- 
grey, and later a zone or ring of a deeper tint appears 
round the base. 

As none of my eggs had hatched by June 22nd, I 
will here record Mr. Fletcher's report of his larvae : 
to the first ten that hatched he only gave Festuca 
ovina as food, and they all starved on it ; since then 
he gave others a further choice of Thymus serpyllum, 
and they have thriven, and are up on the thyme every 
morning. He writes : cc They are doing well on wild 
thyme. When first hatched they are yellowish, with 
very conspicuous black warts, each having a pin-shaped 
bristle; in their second coat (after first moult) they 
show faintly the usual lines." 

On the 29th June, Mr. Fletcher most generously 
sent me one of the three larvse he had reared so far 
on wild thyme ; this had just moulted a second time, 
and measured over 4 mm. It was of the true Agrotis 
form, stout for its length, and of green colour, like 
the leaves of its food plant, showing a double dorsal 
line enclosing the finest thread of paler, a pale thin 
subdorsal line, edged above with a darker line ; after 
a short interval a pale stripe follows, and at a greater 
interval below is the broader pale spiracular stripe ; 
the belly and legs less pale ; the tubercular fine dark 
warty dots all in their usual situations ; the second 
segment of a paler ground colour like the head, and 
both more shiniug than the rest of the body ; by 
degrees the green ground colour changed to purplish- 
brown, which was quite noticeable on the 2nd of 
July. 

By the morning of the 4th it had moulted a third 
time, and had now a bigger head, which previously was 
small; the colouring of the body was at first, for a time, 
pale brown, but soon grew darker pinkish -brown ; all 
details as before. It can be seen that the wart behind 



14 AGROTIS CTNEREA. 

each spiracle is larger than other warts. The larva 
was now 9 mm. long when walking ; it fed readily 
on Thymus. By the next day it had regained its depth 
of colour, a dingy pinkish-brown, with the details 
much less noticeable. On the 16th it moulted a fourth 
time, and became a dingy grey-brown ; it moulted a 
fifth time on the 28th, and was then a very dark slaty- 
grey, though with greenish tinge on the belly. I 
figured it on the 7th, 8th and 9th August, when it was 
an inch and a quarter long. On the 13th August it 
was laid up for another moult, and by the evening of 
the 15th it had moulted a sixth time ; it was at first 
dark slaty bluish-green ; the front margin only of the 
plate on the second segment was then black, the rest 
of the plate was green, and the fine pale dorsal and 
subdorsal threads ran through the black as well as the 
green ; the next day it was more dingy than ever — 
quite a blackish-green ; the spiracles rather large and 
black, spots dark brown, plate growing darker, the 
skin with loose folds (it had not yet fed since moulting). 
On the 18th it again began to feed, though sparingly, 
and by the 27th had much increased in thickness, and 
a little in length ; the dark brown tubercular dots on 
the back were largest on the thoracic segments ; at 
this date it appeared to be sweating, and its coal-black 
" frass " to be softer than heretofore, so I gave it some 
older growths of Thymus to eat, and allowed it plenty 
of exercise ; when I again portrayed it on the 29th 
it measured, when fully stretched out, an inch and a 
half, and was stout in proportion. The lobes of the 
head were shining jet black, and between them, above 
the upper lip (also marked with black), was a triangulaar 
black spot; the papillse greenish, tipped with black; 
the plate on the second segment was jet-black, with a 
very fine pale dorsal division ; all other details as 
before. 

By the 14th of October it had gradually become less 
dark in its general colouring, which now appeared of a 
dingy greenish-drab hue ; it still fed a little at intervals. 



AGEOTIS C1NEREA. 15 

On the 18th October, I put it in a flower-pot, on 
a growing plant of Thymus serpyllum. 

At the end of March, 1883, I sought for the larva, 
and found it dead and rigid. 

On the 6th June, 1883, I bought some eggs of 
Agrotis cinerea, 14 in number ; they were laid on the 
30th and 31st of May, on chip, in a group of eleven 
side by side, and another little group of three ; they 
were ribbed and very much of a wax-like texture, and 
of a pale greenish-buff tint, each egg having near the 
top a fine ragged ring of dark greyish-brown not quite 
completed, and at the top a small central blotch of 
that colour, Thev continued thus until June 9th, 
when they had gained a slight increase of tint, and 
on the 10th they turned to olive-brownish, and on the 
11th to a dingy purplish within the ring at the top. 
The ribs were now plainly visible. In the afternoon 
they became rather cloudy and indistinct, of a paler 
leaden-drab hue, and late in the evening six of them 
hatched, and three more by next morning, two in the 
afternoon, and the remainder next day. 

The newly -hatched larva is dingy greenish-grey or 
dirty yellowish in colour, with blackish head and plate 
on the second segment, both shining, and shining 
black tubercular warts on the body, each with an ex- 
tremely fine hair. They very soon began to feed, 
each larva gnawing away the under-surface from a 
leaf of Thymus serpyllum. By the 21st they had 
become of a greenish ground colour, the black dots, 
head, and narrow plate on the second segment still 
very distinct ; and some of the larvse are now laid up 
to moult. On the 22nd they began to moult the first 
time, and are now decidedly green, with all their 
black dots as before, with increase of stoutness ; the 
green head strongly marked with black on each lobe 
and at the mouth ; a mere outline of the plate on the 
second segment remains ; a faintly paler green dorsal 
line can be traced, and two lines of rather paler green 
can be traced along the side. On the 29th and 30th 



16 AGBOTIS CINEREA. 

they moulted a second time, and were now of a deep 
green colour, with rather lighter green dorsal line, 
distinct from having dark edges ; the shining head 
with a black mark on the lobes, the ocelli, and the 
mouth ; the subdorsal line and the other below it 
now show faintly of lighter green, and the paler spi- 
racular stripe is plainly visible, the raised black dots 
and hairs very much so. The larva is now 7 mm. in 
length. On the evening of the 5th July two had 
moulted for the third, time, and the remainder by next 
day. From this time they began to thicken, and by 
the 11th showed a further moult to be not far off. On 
the 13th they were laid up waiting, and on the 17th 
ten had moulted the fourth time, and three were still 
waiting. On the 9th August the largest seemed pre- 
paring for another moult, and in the afternoon of the 
13th it moulted the fifth time ; two others were then 
laid up, and the rest were still feeding. Another 
made its fifth moult on the 16th, and others were laid 
up ; one moulted a fifth time on the 17th, and one 
was preparing on the 21st. On the 29th the three 
smallest, a moult behind the others, died ; and two 
others, of the same size and moult, died on the 3rd 
of September. The four survivors attained full 
growth, and were fine plump larvse by the end of Sep- 
tember ; they continued to feed well up to the 10th of 
October, when one was found hibernating, not having 
fed for three days ; two others during that time had 
fed but very little, and only one was still feeding well 
as ever, a ? as I suppose from its being the largest. 
I put them all four in a pot of Thymus serpyllum, 
prepared for them, and protected by wire gauze to 
prevent their escape. (W. B., 1882 and 1883, Note 
Book IV, 127-8, and 214) 



AGROTIS CURSORIA. 17 



Agrotjs CURSORIA. 
Plate LXXI, fig. 7. 

This is one of the many species I owe to the kind- 
ness of Mr. 0. G. Barrett, since he has turned his 
attention to the insect fauna of the coast of Norfolk. 

On September 4th, 1869, he sent me a dozen moths 
(mostly females) alive ; and in the course of a week 
some of them laid batches of eggs in little clustered 
groups of about forty or fifty, and also a few single 
ones scattered amongst the sand in their prison. 
These eggs I soon after conveyed to what seemed a 
promising spot for a future colony at a sand-hill on the 
coast, with the intention of looking after their larval 
produce in the following summer ; but my friend 
spared me all that trouble by sending me a number of 
the larvae, in different stages of growth, on June 11th, 
1870, and a further supply on the 20th ; these all fed 
well on Arenaria peploides, Viola Curtisii, Triticum 
junceum, etc., and became full-fed towards the end of 
June, when they burrowed deep into the sand for 
pupation, and the perfect insects made their appear- 
ance from the 1st to the 12th of August. 

The egg of A. cursoria is rather small in proportion 
to the size of the moth, nearly globular, flattened a 
little at the base, very finely ribbed and reticulated, 
and of a flesh colour. 

The larva when young is long and slender for an 
Agrotis ; but, as it approaches half-growth, it becomes 
of tolerably stout proportions, and, when full-grown, 
is very decidedly plump. Its form is cylindrical, 
tapering a little at the first three segments, the head 
being the smallest, though full and rounded in outline ; 
it tapers also on the two hinder segments ; the seg- 
mental divisions and sub-dividing wrinkles are very 
well defined. 

The colouring varies according to its size, but the 
head and the plate on the second segment are invari- 

vol. v. 2 



18 AGROTIS CURSORIA. 

ably of a pale brownish-buff tint ; the general colour- 
ing of the body, up to more than half-growth, is a 
lively glaucous-green on the back, and rather bluish or 
greenish -grey on the sides, with the following details : 
the dorsal line is bluish-grey, outlined with dark- 
greenish-grey ; the subdorsal line is of a pale or 
whitish-grej 7 , edged above with a strongly contrasting 
dark greenish-grey line ; midway between this and 
the spiracles, on the greenish-grey, rather transparent, 
ground colour of the side, there runs another line of 
pale whitish-grey, but undulating and interrupted in 
character ; beneath this again, as far as the spiracles, 
the ground colour is darker ; then follows a broad 
stripe of greyish-white, having a fine, dark, grey 
line running through it, the skin in this region being 
rather rugose : the belly and legs are rather pale 
greenish-grey ; the spiracles are black, and the tuber- 
cular dots dark brown ; the head and plate behind it 
are highly polished, and the rest of the body smooth- 
skinned and shining. 

Soon after this period of half-growth, the larva 
comes to be parti-coloured for a time, the front seg- 
ments remaining green, whilst a patch of ochreous 
tinges the back of the hinder segments ; by and by, this 
by degrees spreads below, and extends gradually for- 
wards, keeping pace with the growth of the larva until 
it has attained its full size, when the whole of the body 
is of the same buff colour as the head, relieved by the 
whitish-grey lines before described, which are edged 
with short streaks of darkish- grey just at the 
beginning of each segment ; the tubercular dark 
brown dots are now very conspicuous. 

The shape of the pupa is like that of many of its 
congeners, moderately stout, smooth, and rather 
shining, and of a pale golden-brown colour. 

(W. B., May, 1872 ; E.M.M., IX, 14, June, 1872.) 



AGROTIS NIGRICANS. 19 

Agrotis NIGRICANS. 
Plate LXXII, fig. 1. 

On May 11th, 1865, Mr. Doubleday kindly presented 
me with some larvae, which proved to be of this 
species ; and to that gentleman I am greatly indebted 
for the following account of their destructiveness in 
a field of ten acres, which last autumn was sown with 
wheat, and with clover in the early part of this year ; 
the clover came up well, and the field was green with 
it all over, until these larvae began to attack it. So 
prodigious were their numbers and so great their 
powers of devastation that, by the 17th May, not a 
leaf of clover, nor even of any weeds, remained out of 
the whole ten acres, though the wheat was uninjured ; 
and by that time they had left the open field and gone 
to the hedge-banks and ditches, where a remarkable 
scene of destruction presented itself to view. The large 
Heracleum and other umbelliferous plants were stripped 
of their leaves, and, in short, nothing was left but 
grasses, which they did not appear to touch. 

I also received other larvae of this species on the 
14th May from Mr. Last of Ipswich, feeding on 
Plantago major and P. lanceolata, and he reported 
that they liked a change of food, and would eat many 
low plants ; however, I found they took readily to 
clover, and, like those before mentioned, continued to 
feed to about the middle of June, the moths appear- 
ing from July 15th to July 24th, varying much in their 
appearance, and becoming active and restless the 
moment their wings were dry. 

The larva when full-grown is an inch and a half 
long, smooth and cylindrical. The colour of the back 
is ochreous-brown, and in some individuals very bright 
ochreous ; a thin grey dorsal line, margined with 
blackish, and running through a series of blackish- 
brown triangular and diamond shapes, well defined in 
some individuals, though obscure in others. 



20 AGROTIS NIGRICANS 

Subdorsal line greenish-black, in some varieties 
quite black, and edged below with a narrow line of 
dirty whitish-green, then a broad stripe of blackish- 
green, followed by another dirty whitish-green, narrow 
and slightly interrupted, line, and then another darker 
broad stripe of blackish-green, along the lower edge 
of which are the black spiracles. A double whitish 
stripe follows, extending down the sides of the anal 
pro-legs, which is made by a line of pale dirty greyish- 
green, being the colour of the belly and pro-legs, 
running through the middle of the white. The ordi- 
nary shining warty spots black. The head greyish- 
brown, mottled, and streaked with black. A dark 
brown shining plate on the back of the second seg- 
ment, with three paler greyish lines. 

Some of these larvse presented great resemblance 
to several of the varieties of Agrotis tritici, but the 
double white stripe above the feet, and black warty 
dots, give distinct characters to the larvse of 
A. nigricans. (W. B., E.M.M., II, 162, Dec, 1865.) 



Agrotis aquilina. 

Plate LXXII, fig. 3. 

Larvse of this species, more than half-grown, were 
kindly obtained for me on the 15th May, 1865, by 
Mr. T. Last, a naturalist, of Borough Road, Ipswich, 
who informed me they were taken under tufts of the 
common plantain, and advised their having the narrow- 
leaved plantain as a change of diet ; and from a later 
communication I learnt that they would eat various 
low plants, such as poppies, chickweed, knot-grass, 
and even onions, and that no Galium existed within 
half a mile of their locality, and that in rearing them 
in captivity, a change and variety in food-plants would 
be essential to their doing well. The few I had, 
however, did remarkably well on clover and Plantago 
lanceolata ; they burrowed after the manner of many 



AGEOTIS AQUILINA. 21 

of the genus during the day, and crawled forth to 
attack their food at night, and were full-fed by the 
20th June, and the perfect insects emerged from 
July 24th to 29th, varying much in markings, no two 
specimens being alike, excepting in the general tint of 
warm brown, peculiar to this species. 

The larva, when full-grown, is an inch and a half 
long, cylindrical, and rather shining. The head is grey- 
brown, mottled with blackish ; the back dingy brown, 
a dorsal line of rather paler grey-brown, the subdorsal 
line black, edged below with a thin line of grey-brown, 
and which, like the dorsal line, runs through the 
blackish plate on the second segment ; to this succeeds 
a broad stripe of dingy blackish-green, then another 
thin line of grey-brown, followed by another broad 
stripe of dingy blackish-green, the black spiracles 
being situated along its lower edge ; the belly and legs 
grey-brown, the warty spots dark brown and not very 
conspicuous ; the general aspect of the larva very dark 
and dingy. (W. B., September, 1865 ; E.M.M., II, 133, 
November, 1865.) 



Agrotis obelisca. 
Plate LXXII, fig. 4. 

I received, 5th June, 1870, from Mr. Wilson, of 
Edinburgh, eight larvae, little and big, of an Agrotis, 
said to be obelisca. The smallest were very dark 
indeed, and had a pattern on the back of dark marks 
through which runs the dorsal line, thus : (J) . 

Their natural food is asserted to be Helianthemum 
vulgar 'e. 

The ground-colour of the back is greyish-brown, 
the sides of a smoky or blackish-green. The sub- 
dorsal stripe is rather broad and dark blackish-green, 
the dorsal line pale grey, outlined with blackish-green ; 
properly speaking, the subdorsal line is thin, of pale 
greenish-grey, and edged above broadly with the dark 



22 AGROTIS OBELISCA. 

blackish -green stripe mentioned above. Along the 
middle of the side runs in an undulating manner 
another pale greenish-grey line, somewhat interrupted 
and irregular as to its thickness, and at some distance 
below, immediately beneath the black spiracles, is a 
broad stripe of dirty-whitish, having a fine line of 
smoky blackish-green running through the middle of 
it. Belly uniform pale smoky-green. Tubercles dark 
smoky-green and shining, spiracles black. The ground 
of the back is finely freckled with darker atoms. The 
head is smoky brownish, freckled with darker, and its 
lobes streaked with darker; the plate of second seg- 
ment very shining dark smoky blackish-brown, the pale 
dorsal and subdorsal lines distinct on it. Tubercular 
warts shining. The segments rather deeply wrinkled. 

On the 16th of June, I was delighted to see the 
wonderful change that had come over these larvaB; 
both big and little were arrayed in attractive colours. 
The ground colour of the back is now a flesh colour 
or pinkish-ochreous, the dorsal line passing through 
a pear-shape of pinkish-bronze or pinkish-grey, with 
dark freckles, the small end of the pear behind ; the 
sides dark pinkish-grey with opaque whitish ragged 
lines below the spiracles, and the whole of the belly 
and pro-legs opaque white, rather shining, and having 
a lovely opalescent gleam of pinkish on this and all 
over the body. 

By the 25th of June these colours began to dis- 
appear, and to be replaced with others of a very dull 
and plain character. (W. B., 1870, Note Book I, 3, 
4, 16, 17.) 



Agrotis ravida. 

Plate LXXIII, fig. 3. 

By the kind efforts of Mr. Doubled ay, to whom I 
feel greatly indebted, I have had the great satisfaction 
of rearing and figuring larvae of this species. They 



AGROTIS RAVIDA. 23 

are to be found in soils congenial for their burrowing, 
just below the surface, chiefly at the roots of thistles 
and dandelion plants ; being full-fed from the begin- 
ing to about the 20th of May. I found them feed 
freely on the large milky leaves of dandelion, and 
change to pupae in loosely-constructed cocoons of earth 
from the 6th to the 20th of May. The larvae presented 
three varieties of markings on the back, of a character 
such as I have never before met with. 

Yar. 1. Larva yellowish-brown, slightly tapering 
near the head, but almost of uniform thickness, and 
cylindrical ; a thin dorsal line slightly paler than the 
ground colour, and running through a dusky v-like 
streak at the end of each segment after the fourth. 
At the commencement of the fourth segment, on each 
side, and close to the division, is a subdorsal ochreous- 
yellow spot, which, on the fifth to the eleventh, 
inclusive, has an almost confluent yellow wavy curved 
streak, extending along two-thirds of each segment, 
becoming less curved towards the twelfth, on which 
they are straight, and slightly converging at the end 
of that segment, where they are margined above with 
dusky brown wedge-shaped streaks pointing forwards, 
and a dusky edging above to the curved yellow streaks, 
but gradually less intense towards the head on the 
other segments. 

The sides and belly, with legs, brownish-grey ; a 
paler greyish stripe freckled with dusky atoms above 
the feet ; immediately above that are the spiracles, 
minute and dirty white in a dusky blotch, which emits 
an oblique dusky streak, extending to the subdorsal 
marking of the segment in advance. Head grey, 
mottled and streaked on the lobes and face with dusky 
brown ; a dull brown plate on the second segment, 
with slight indications of dorsal and subdorsal faint 
lines through it. 

Looking on the back of this larva, the yellow marks 
on each side are suggestive of a series of incompleted 
horseshoe shapes. 



24 AGROTIS RAVIDA. 

Var. 2. Ochreous-brown on the back ; the paler 
dorsal line after the fourth segment only visible at the 
divisions ; the V-like streaks from them being longer 
and darker than in the first variety. The yellow spot 
on the anterior portion of each segment on either side 
the back, isolated from the yellow subdorsal streak 
by a very dark brown, rather broad, edging to the 
yellow streak, and extending with it along two- thirds 
of each segment after the fourth to the eleventh, and 
on the twelfth to the end of the segment, converging 
a little at the extremity ; and on these the yellow 
marks are broad and straight, but those on the third 
and fourth segments are curved, and without the 
dusky brown border above. A dark brown plate on the 
second segment. Head pale grey, streaked and mottled 
with dusky brown. Belly and sides similar to the 
preceding. 

Yar. 3. Dingy ochreous-brown on the back, and 
darkest towards the head ; the slender and slightly 
paler dorsal line hardly visible, and only at the seg- 
mental divisions. 

On each side of the back, in the subdorsal region, 
at the anterior of each segment, and beginning at the 
fifth, a dingy ochreous spot and curved streak, becom- 
ing confluent at the eighth and three following seg- 
ments (on the twelfth the streak only visible) ; each 
yellow curved streak edged above with a thin black 
streak, and extending two-thirds down each segment ; 
the spaces on the middle of the back between the 
streaks being filled up with dark brown, and two 
minute dusky dots edged with paler in the upper 
portion of these somewhat square dark forms. The 
curved yellow subdorsal streaks slightly marked on 
the second, third, and fourth segments, and the yellow 
spots also on the fourth. Head dingy brown ; the 
sides dingy brown, with a paler greyish stripe above 
the feet, anteriorly edged above with dusky, and oblique 
streaks above it, as in Var. 1, but not so well defined. 
The anal segment in each of the larvae plain dingy 



AGR0TIS RAVIDA. 25 

brown. The moths appeared on July 8th, 1865. 
(W. B.,E.M.M., II, 115, October, 1865.) 



Triph^ina subsequa. 
Plate LXXIV, fig. 4. 

On September 6th, 1871, Mr. George Norman, of 
Forres, most kindly sent me some eggs laid by a 
female of this species. The larvae began to hatch on 
the evening of the 13th ; on the 23rd they moulted ; 
by October 14th they were five-twelfths of an inch 
in length, and growing fast, so that by the 20th they 
were five-eighths of an inch long ; after this, most of 
them ceased feeding for hibernation, but some went 
on till full growth, moulting for the last time during 
the latter part of November, becoming full-fed from 
the 16th to 27th of December, and pupating shortly 
after. The hibernating larvae did well enough whilst 
the weather was mild, and fed a little, and got through 
a moult in January, 1872 ; but, on the 29th of that 
month, a severe frost killed most of them, and the 
survivors perished in a similar way on February 21st. 

I sent some eggs to Mr. Hellins, who managed to 
bring three larvae through hibernation, keeping them 
in a cucumber-frame without bottom heat ; but he 
bred only one moth (June 12th), the pupa state 
having lasted four or five weeks. 

The food the larvas chose at first was cowslip, 
garden riband-grass, and Ranunculus acris ; after a 
time they seemed to prefer Potentilla rejotans and 
Ranunculus repens, and on this last they fed up ; Mr. 
Hellins tells me his larvas stuck to the riband-grass 
throughout. 

The egg, as with other species of this genus, was 
small, somewhat globular, but rather flattened above; 
the shell glistening, with thirty blunt ribs, and faint 
reticulations ; the colour at first dirty white, and 
in four days there appeared a greyish-brown blotch 



26 TEIPHJENA SUBSEQUA. 

on the apex, and a zone of irregular blotches round 
the middle ; just before hatching, the colour was pale 
grey. 

The young larvae were at first of a semi-pellucid 
greenish-grey colour, with a brown head, and an 
internal brownish-green vessel, all the usual warts very 
conspicuous, and bearing each a bristle. In ten days 
they had moulted into opaque, brownish-grey coats, 
having a stripe of cream colour above the legs ; at 
their next moult, when from three to four lines long, 
they were of similar colour, the dorsal and subdorsal 
lines becoming faintly visible, the former as a pale 
thread running down the centre of a brown stripe, 
the latter as a fine line rather paler than the ground, 
and edged above with a thread of darker ; the lower 
stripe above the legs much paler than the ground 
colour. In three weeks more they were five lines in 
length, and stouter in proportion than before, and now 
showed the dorsal stripe white running uninterruptedly 
through oval shapes of brownish-grey, darker than 
the ground colour, the subdorsal stripe as before, and 
the pale subspiracular stripe having a fine line of 
white on its upper edge. These details, even at this 
early stage, effectually distinguish this species from 
either of its congeners. Another week of growth 
brought them up to five-eighths of an inch in length, 
and they were now generally of a little deeper tint of 
greyish-brown, the dorsal white stripe still the distinct 
character, running now through elongated diamond 
shapes, darker than the ground colour ; the subdorsal 
stripe a little less white, with a series of oblong black 
dashes along its upper margin ; just before the last 
moult the whitish stripes assumed an ochreous-yellow 
tint, and the whole ornamentation generally came 
very near to the appearance of the full-grown stage 
— now to be described. 

The full-grown larva is one inch and a half to one 
and five-eighths inches in length, of stout proportions, 
cylindrical, and of tolerably uniform bulk throughout, 



TRIPH^NA SUBSEQTJA. 27 

tapering a little from the fifth segment to the head, 
which is a trifle the smallest ; and the thirteenth seg- 
ment tapers also a little, and is rounded off behind ; 
the segmental divisions are slightly indented ; the 
smooth skin has a velvety appearance. The ground 
colour is greyish-brown or pale drab ; on the back of 
each segment is a much darker and rather olive- 
tinted mark of a diamond shape, with the points trun- 
cated ; through the middle of this row of diamonds 
runs the very conspicuously wide dorsal stripe of 
bright ochreous-yellow, which at each end of the 
body becomes narrower, and is relieved throughout 
by a very fine black edging ; sometimes a faint cloud 
of greyish appears in the middle of this dorsal stripe, 
but this is oftener met with in the earlier stages ; the 
subdorsal stripe is almost as wide as the dorsal, but 
is rather more of a greyish-yellow, and clouded faintly 
with greyish along the middle, and it is well relieved 
on its upper and lower edges by a thin darker line ; 
close along the upper edge, in contact with it, is a 
series of oblong, square black marks, each mark 
situated on the anterior portion of a segment, those 
on the third and fourth segments being narrower than 
the rest and rather wedge-shaped, that on the twelfth 
extending the whole length of the segment ; the tuber- 
cular marks on the back are black, and three on either 
side of the dorsal stripe in each segment and in the 
post-thoracic segments are thus arranged : — the 
middle one of each three is seen as a dot, sometimes 
faintly confluent longitudinally, and the other two are 
merged within tran verse narrow bars of black, the one 
in front at the segmental division, the other behind 
the square black mark previously mentioned, only the 
slenderest interval of the pale ground colour separa- 
ting them ; adjacent on the back, near the segmental 
divisions, are a few fine longitudinal streaks of greyish- 
yellow : the ground colour of the side, as far as the 
spiracles, is the same as that of the back, with a 
darker longitudinal stripe running midway through it, 



28 TRIPH^NA SUBSEQUA. 

more strongly tinged with darker brown at the begin- 
ing of each segment ; the very broad subspiracular 
stripe is pale ochreous at its upper and lower edges, 
rather greyish-ochreous along the middle, bearing a 
couple of brown freckles on most of the segments ; 
the upper edge of this stripe is well defined by a very 
fine brown line, on which are the spiracles, small and 
white, either simply outlined with black, or placed in 
fusiform black blotches, which gradually increase in 
size to the twelfth segment ; the belly has a faint, 
indistinct, central, paler longitudinal line, and a few 
freckles of the same paler tint, but its general colour, 
as well as that of the legs, is a little deeper in tint 
than the subspiracular stripe ; the ventral legs bear 
a couple of small brown dots, and are tipped with 
hooks of the same colour ; the head is brownish-grey, 
freckled with dark brown, and marked down the front 
of each lobe with a black wedge-shaped mark, point- 
ing to each side of the mouth ; the sides of the head 
bear also a black streak. 

It will thus be seen that this larva is a much 
handsomer creature than either of its congeners in this 
country, and abundantly distinct from them. 

The pupa-state was assumed at a slight depth below 
the surface of the soil, and there seemed to be little 
appearance of any cocoon or chamber ; the pupa was 
full and rounded in figure, the skin being thin and of 
a bright red colour. (W. B., July, 1872 ; E.M.M., 
IX, 56, August, 1872.) 



Triph^na orbona. 

Plate LXXIV, fig. 5. 

This larva is of a pale ochreous-greyish tint on the 
belly, with a central oblong broad spot on the fifth and 
sixth segments. The surface is freckled with grey- 
brown. On the side immediately below the sub- 



triphjENA orbona. 29 

spiracular broad stripe is an equally broad stripe of a 
little deeper ground with darker and thicker freckles, 
and a blackish spot. A blackish spot is also on each 
ventral leg. (W. B., 1872, Note Book I, 165.) 



TrIPH/ENA prontjba. 
Plate LXXV, fig. 1. 

On the 28th of August, 1873, I received from Mr. 
W. H. Harwood a batch of eggs laid round the flower- 
stalk of an umbel of Silaus pratensis. They were 
closely laid together in even rows embracing the stalk, 
which was covered with them for about three-quarters 
of an inch in length, and for a quarter of an inch 
round two of the foot-stalks. Each egg was circular, 
rather flattened above and below, strongly ribbed and 
reticulated, and when they arrived were a pale drab 
colour, blotched above in the centre with pink ; in two 
days the pink had gradually spread over the rest of 
their surface, and on the 1st of September they 
changed to greyish-pink, and to a leaden-grey on 
the 2nd, but glistening as when first they arrived ; on 
the 3rd they all hatched, and at first the young larvae 
were but little more than one-sixteenth of an inch 
long, with large dark brown head and plate behind it ; 
the body brownish-grey, with minute blackish dots, 
each bearing a fine dark hair. 

After twice moulting I began to identify them, and 
by October 20th they were all of the ordinary dark 
grey-brown forms, and were sent adrift. 

On 16th September, 1874, six larvae arrived from 
Mrs. Hutchinson, which she had reared from eggs laid 
on a reed stem about a fortnight previously at Wicken 
Fen. Some of the eggs had hatched during the 
journey to her, and she had kept the young larvae on 
Triticum repens, and they had moulted once only before 
they were sent to me to be named. 

On reaching me the larvae were three and a half 



30 TJRIPHJ1NA PRONUBA. 

lines in length, of a light rather greenish-drab colour, 
and on the 18th they moulted, and ate freely of knot- 
grass as well as plantain. Before moulting I had 
observed that they had a paler subspiracular stripe, and 
now, after their moult, this was very distinct, and 
their backs were green, having paler, almost whitish, 
dorsal and subdorsal lines, these last the thickest, 
and both of them finely edged with darker glaucous 
green than the ground ; a darker glaucous green 
freckling ran along the spiracular region ; their heads 
a pale greenish-brown. They all by degrees grew 
paler, and their lines indistinct as they drew near 
another moult, which was accomplished on the 23rd 
and 24th, when they were now half an inch long, and 
their characteristic dress appeared for the first time — 
an appearance only too familiar to those who have 
paid much attention to larvae. This dress of course 
was only somewhat rudimentary, but the subdorsal line 
having a faint clouded central streak through it, and 
a darker mark above it at the beginning of each 
segment was quite sufficient for their satisfactory 
identification. On the 27th and 28th they moulted 
again ; though greenish at the time of casting their 
skin, yet in half an hour their colouring was grey, the 
head remaining pale green some hour or two longer, 
when it also began to grow a little greyish-brown, and 
to show a darker streak of reticulation down the front 
margin of each lobe ; the black dashes along the upper 
margin of the subdorsal pale stripe being very strongly 
marked; twelve hours later their grey colouring 
changed to brownish-grey. On the 29th and 30th, 
and 1st of October they again moulted, one of them 
nearly black, one light green, the others pearly-grey 
at first turned rather pinkish-grey, and after moulting, 
they were about an inch in length, and stoutish in 
proportion. On November 15th they were all dead 
but one, from some disease which turned them black 
and rotten. The sole survivor on the 25th changed 
to a pupa. (W. B., 1873, Note Book II, 132.) 



TRIPH^NA PR0NUBA. 31 

On the 25th August, 1882, I received from Mr. 
Wm. R. Jeffrey three groups of eggs laid on the upper 
side of part of an oak leaf, the other parts of the leaf 
having four or five times as many, and those sent 
to me numbered about 122. The eggs were laid 
evenly and close together side by side, and were of 
an almost white colour when gathered from the tree 
nearly a week since, and before I received them 
they had changed to a deep dull pink, and this 
seemed to deepen a little daily up to the morning of 
the 30th ; a few hours later they changed to a light 
violet hue, and in the evening of that day they began 
to hatch. 

The shell of the egg is globular, having an embossed 
central ring at top, from which the surface is 
numerously ribbed, and very dull. 

The newly-hatched larva is apparently a semi-looper, 
but has sixteen legs, and is of a pinkish-grey colour, 
apparently transversely banded with darker grey 
while walking. The head is black, and a narrow 
blackish plate is on the second segment ; a broad dorsal 
vessel of dark brownish-grey, minute dark dots with 
black bristly hairs ; they were placed on oak, but did 
not eat, and all died in a day or two. On the 28th of 
September I received about thirty larvae which Mr. 
Jeffrey had saved from a part of this same brood by 
feeding them with birch ; some of the larvse were now 
about four to five lines long, evidently Noctuse, and 
brownish in colour ; they had completely skeletonised 
the birch leaves that came with them. On measuring 
one of them I found it to be just five and a half lines 
or 10 mm. long, and rather slender for a Noctua ; its 
ground colour is rather pinkish-brown above, on back 
and sides finely mottled with paler ; a darker brown 
dull plate is on the second segment, through which 
pass the dorsal and subdorsal lines ; the dorsal line is 
cream colour, very thin, and margined with dark brown 
beyond the plate ; the subdorsal is a wider line of the 
same cream colour through the plate, but beyond is 



32 TKIPH7ENA PRONTJBA. 

rather of a light greyish tint, finely edged above and 
below with darker brown ; beneath this the ground 
darkens, and is then well relieved with the spiracular 
stripe of pale brownish-buff, edged above and below 
with paler cream colour ; the belly and legs paler than 
the back ; the head is cinnamon-brown, and rather 
glossy. At this early age the identity of the larva 
cannot be mistaken, from the subdorsal line being 
clouded in the middle with greyish. On the 2nd of 
October most of them had become very pale and 
watery-looking, many laid up and waiting to moult. 
In a day they began to moult, probably for the third 
time, as the characteristic markings appeared, which 
are just the same as in the adult, and at this stage, 
after seeing them eat with avidity a leaf of Galeobdolon 
luteum, I was content to give them all their liberty. 
(W. B., 1882, Note Book IV, 172.) 



NOOTUA DITBAPEZIUM. 

Plate LXXVI, fig. 2. 

On the 24th of July, 1878, I received from Mr. 
Wm. Herd, of Scoonieburn, Perth, a batch of eggs of 
this species just on the point of hatching, which 
commenced immediately. 

The shape of the egg is round and domed above, 
flattened and depressed beneath, ribbed and reticu- 
lated; when first laid they were whitish, and lastly 
pale grey, showing a dark grey spot at the top ; in 
this state they began to hatch. 

The young larva eats out rather a large hole for its 
escape from either the top or side of the shell, and in 
many instances makes its first meal on the shell itself. 
The larva at this time is of a faint semi-pellucid greenish 
or drab tint, altogether very glittering; the head 
blackish, with paler mouth, and a small darkish-brown 
plate on the second segment, and by the help of a lens 



NOOTQA DITRAPEZILTM. 33 

minute dusky dots can be discerned on all the other 
segments of the body. After the first moult they 
were darkish-green or slaty-green, and rather velvety, 
with dark shining blackish heads. By the 9th of 
August, after another moult, they were darker on the 
sides than on the back, and of a dingy-greenish colour, 
with faint dotted or broken dirty-whitish dorsal and 
subdorsal lines ; feeding well on clock and sallow. 
By the 23rd, after another moult, they had become 
brown with darker brown side bands and dorsal some- 
what diamond-shaped marks down the back, one on 
each segment; the dorsal and subdorsal dotted lines 
of creamy- whitish still more conspicuous (I sent 
eighteen to Mr Jeffrey, and twelve to Mrs. Hutchinson). 
From this time I continued to supply them with similar 
food until the sallow began to fail, and then I resorted 
to bramble leaves, which from former experience I 
knew to be their natural food, during the winter and 
early spring months, supplementing them with a few 
dock leaves when they could be found. The winter 
proving unusually and severely cold, they slept con- 
tentedly through all the long-sustained cold periods, 
and whenever a milder interval came I provided more 
bramble, which they ate, and throve gradually, not a 
single death happening all through the winter. In 
March they began to be more awake, and one or two 
at a time began to moult, and fresh dock leaves were 
often added to their fare of bramble ; and through 
April they began to feed, grow, and moult, and by the 
beginning of May, 1879, a few had acquired their full 
growth. Occasionally, a little fresh hawthorn and 
young sallow leaves were added to their fare, and 
towards the end of the month they became full-fed, 
burrowing in the earth a few at a time from the 10th 
to the 29th of May. Just before this time three or 
four deaths occurred amongst them of individuals that 
had lost appetite, lagged behind the rest, and had not 
performed the last, nor, perhaps, the penultimate 
moult, though they lingered on alive, apparently 
vol. v. 3 



34 NOCTUA D1TEAPEZIUM. 

without eating, until the latter part of May, and the 
last of these individuals did not die before the 3rd 
of June. 

The full-grown larva is from one and a half to one 
and five-eighths of an inch in length. (W. B., 1879, 
Note Book III, 241, 247.) 



NoCTUA C0NFLUA. 

Plate LXXVII, fig. 2. 

Eggs and one young larva hatched received from 
Mr. Longstaff, August 26th, 1869, from Forres, N.B. 
The egg is at first a dirty yellowish- white, soon 
changing to pale whitish-grey, having a zone round 
the middle, and a blotch of pale brown on the upper 
surface, some having splashes of brown. Its shape 
globular above, but flattened beneath. 

By August 30th, I found I had four young larvse 
about one-eighth of an inch long, extremely pellucid 
and shining, rather thick in proportion to length ; the 
head black, a blackish-brown plate on the second 
segment, the dots small and blackish, each with a hair ; 
the body dirty greenish and translucent, the interior 
showing through the skin as a dark slaty-green internal 
stripe. They fed readily on knot-grass and dock. 
By the end of September I found only three larvae, 
and soon after this date their transparent look dis- 
appeared, and they became of a light greyish-buff 
colour on the back, and greyish-brown on the sides ; 
the pale subdorsal line finely edged above with a thin 
thread of black. Their growth was very slow, and 
they ate but little ; at the end of December they were 
about half an inch long, and stout in proportion. 
(W. B., 1870, Note Book I, 24.) 

Eggs from Mr. Norman at Forres, July 17th, 1870. 
The egg is whitish-flesh colour, with a pinkish-brown 
blotch at the top, and a zone of the same colour round 



NOOTUA CON FLU A. 35 

the middle ; the shape is globular, just the least 
flattened beneath. 

On the 20th August, passing over the earlier stages, 
which I noted last year, I resume a description of the 
larva at half an inch in length. It is darkish-brown 
on the back, and darker brown on the sides, with 
some faint traces of the dorsal line, and the subdorsal 
one whitish and very distinct, an obscure black edging 
above it, and a cream-coloured stripe beneath the 
spiracles. 

Mr. Norman sent me several batches of eggs, but I 
here describe the larvae of the third batch first. The 
eggs came on 27th July, and hatched on the 31st. 
Mr. Norman, in his letter from Forres, dated 25th July, 
says : " Pardon me for sending confiua again. They 
are from very pretty parents, quite different in colour 
from the former.' ' 

Now the larvse from these eggs, although much like 
other N. confiua when very young, yet nevertheless 
soon began to look rather different from the other 
broods of this species, chiefly in showing the dark 
subdorsal dashes at an earlier stage than usual, as 
well as in being thicker also. Another circumstance 
to be mentioned is that though treated like all the 
other broods, yet they matured in several instances 
much earlier than the others, and one of them pupated 
on the 3rd of October, and others at intervals, and by 
the 2nd of November as many as twelve had entered 
that stage. The full-grown larva is very plump, the 
largest segment being the twelfth, and the head the 
smallest, the thoracic segments tapering towards it 
when stretched out; at such times, it is one inch to 
an inch and one-eighth in length. The ground colour 
of the back and sides is purplish-brown, palest on the 
back ; the pale dorsal line of this colour is but faintly 
visible here and there, chiefly towards the ends of 
segments, for the two blackish-brown lines that enclose 
it seem much run and fused together. The subdorsal 
line is white, or whitish, but is very fine and thin, 



36 NOOTUA C0NFLUA. 

bearing a thick black wedge-mark above it, on the 
front of each segment ; these marks are remarkably 
thick, beginning on the fifth and ending on the twelfth 
segment, where their outer sides are decidedly concave ; 
a diamond shape of dark purplish-brown is in the 
centre of the back of each segment ; its anterior 
portion, as far as the ends of the black wedges, is of a 
still deeper purplish-brown ; a flue streak of white at 
its beginning from the outer end of the black wedge- 
shape flows round its base, and slants obliquely in- 
wards, rapidly melting into the ground colour. The 
space from the subdorsal line to the spiracles is 
purplish-brown, its upper half the darkest ; from 
thence at the beginning of the lower half at the front 
of each segment is a blackish oblique streak slanting 
backwards to the black spiracle. The subspiracular 
stripe is of yellowish-grey tinged with brownish along 
its middle, its edges yellowish -white ; an inflated semi- 
circular pale greyish spot is below its lower edge in 
front. The belly and pro-legs brownish-grey. The 
head dark shining brown ; all the other parts of the 
back and sides are velvety. The plate of very dark 
brown on the second segment is also velvety. The 
thoracic segments are darker than the others. The 
tubercular dots on the back show white for the first 
pair, often situate on the black wedges ; the hinder 
pair are inconspicuous immediately behind their broad 
ends. 

Their food is chiefly dock and bramble. The first 
moth, a female, appeared on the 5th of December ; 
the inner half from base and also the subterminal 
borders of a bright bluish-grey, the rest rich chestnut- 
brown. (W. B., 1870, Note Book I, 24, 38, 62.) 



nootua dahlii. 37 

Noctua Dahlii. 
Plate LXXVII, fig. 3. 

On September 11th, 1868, I had the pleasure to 
receive from Mr. Gr. B. Longstaff an abundant supply 
of eggs of this species, that had been obtained from 
several females in captivity by Mr. Gr. Norman, in 
Morayshire. 

The eggs were dome-shaped, flattened, and slightly 
concave beneath, ribbed and reticulated, of a drab 
colour, with a central zone of brown ; in a few hours 
after I had them they turned to a brownish-slate 
colour, and the larvge began to hatch on the 13th 
September and were all out by the 15th. 

The young larvae were at first a brownish-grey 
colour, with black heads, and they soon began to eat 
the green cuticle from either surface of leaves of dock, 
Eumex crispus and B. pulcher, showing a most decided 
preference for these plants, though supplied with 
various other kinds of food. 

After their first moult they became a paler brown, 
with their minute tubercular blackish dots and hairs 
distinct ; and by the time they had passed a second 
moult, they were three-eighths of an inch long, brown 
on the back with faintly paler dorsal and subdorsal 
lines, the sides down to the spiracles of a rather 
darker brown than the back, the ventral surface and 
subspiracular stripe paler brownish-grey tinged with 
bluish-grey anteriorly. 

These larvae when about one-third grown were 
handsomer than at any other period, their colours 
being then deeper and brighter. The full-grown larva 
is from one and three-eighths to one and half an inch 
in length, longer perhaps when fully stretched out, 
and then it also tapers from the sixth segment to the 
head, which is narrower than the second segment ; 
the thirteenth also tapers and slopes down from the 



38 NOCTUA DAHLII. 

back to the anal extremity ; otherwise the figure is 
tolerably cylindrical. 

The great feature in the colouring of this species is 
the contrast of the back with the rest of the body, and, 
although the pattern was very much the same through- 
out the numerous brood which I reared, yet I noticed 
great variations of colour — from whitish-ochreous — 
through greyish-ochreous, ochreous-yellow, cinnamon- 
brown, rich orange-brown, to the deepest tint of 
mahogany on their backs. 

I shall describe one of the varieties as typical of the 
greatest number. The ground colour of the back 
down to the subdorsal region, bright ochreous, 
delicately freckled with darker ochreous-brown ; on 
each segment from third to twelfth, more or less dis- 
tinctly appears a diamond shape of ochreous-brown, 
with its edges gently vanishing into the groundcolour; 
the dorsal line is of the ground colour between two 
lines of very dark brown, though in full grown 
examples it is seldom uninterrupted, being visible only 
at the beginning of each segment, and thence 
obliterated by the brown diamond. 

The subdorsal line is thin, rather paler than the 
ground colour, edged above at the beginning of each 
segment with a thin black streak, which is generally 
inclined to end in the slightest possible curve just at 
the lateral point of the dorsal diamond : this diamond 
form is but obscurely and vaguely represented on the 
third and fourth segments, and the last of the series is 
on the twelfth, where it becomes little more than a 
triangle, while the pale subdorsal lines and their black 
upper edgings are there continuous, and become united 
by both crossing transversely the end of that seg- 
ment ; on the thirteenth segment the dorsal line only 
is distinct. 

The ground colour of the sides is grey or brownish- 
grey, tinged anteriorly with bluish-grey, the space 
between the subdorsal line and the spiracles very 
thickly freckled with dark grey -brown, forming a dark 



NOCTUA DAHLIT. 39 

longitudinal side-band in agreeable contrast to the 
back ; the subspiracular stripe is pale greyish, like 
the ventral surface, and only to be distinguished from 
it by its upper and lower edges being a little paler 
than the rest. 

The head is rather pale brown ; the second segment 
has on the back a darker brown velvety patch or plate, 
rounded behind and margined in front with still 
darker brown. The tubercular dots are black, rather 
small, but rendered conspicuously distinct both on 
the back and sides by a small circle of pale ground 
colour surrounding each of them ; the spiracles also 
are black. 

The winter of 1868-69 being of a mild charac- 
ter, and the food-plants easily obtainable, about 
sixty of these larvse continued feeding, and reached 
their full growth before the end of 1868 ; the most 
advanced spun up between dock leaves on November 
14th, and others quickly followed ; somewhat to my 
surprise they refused to enter the earth, but, on 
being supplied with moss, for the most part hid 
themselves in that, constructing very slight cocoons. 

The pupa is quite of the ordinary Noclua form ; 
at first it is a pale greenish colour, and changes in 
a couple of days to brown, and finally to dark brown, 
and is very slightly attached by the tail to a thread of 
its cocoon. This portion of the brood, having all 
become pupas by the end of December, did not remain 
long in that state, but began to appear as moths as 
early as January 19th, 1869, and so on at intervals, 
until April 29th, by which time I had bred twenty-six 
S and twenty-seven ? ; however, a large proportion 
of them were more or less crippled in their wings, and 
very dingy in colour, though some curious varieties oc- 
curred ; but, as a whole, they were not fine examples. 

The remainder of the brood meantime had hyber- 
nated, some of them no more than two lines in length, 
others nearly half an inch, and many of them died off 
during the winter ; but on the approach of April the 



40 NOCTCA DAHLTT. 

survivors began to feed, and by the 10th of May they 
were full-grown ; they also preferred spinning them- 
selves up in moss or in dock leaves to entering the 
earth. 

The perfect insects, and they really were very per- 
fect and fine, forty-five in number, appeared at inter- 
vals between June 4th and July 11th. (W. B., 
February, 1870, E.M.M., VI, 261, April, 1870.) 



NOOTUA BELLA. 

Plate LXXVIII, fig. 1. 

The larva was figured March 2nd, 1874. 

Towards the end of September, 1873, I received a 
young larva of this species, no more than four- sixteenths 
of an inch long, from the Rev. H. Williams, of Croxton, 
who had swept it from heather. It continued to eat 
heather and a little dock until the end of November, 
by which time it had become half an inch long, having 
moulted once in the interval. From this time it began 
to hybernate, though at intervals of milder weather 
it waked up and ate occasionally of grass, dock, and 
lettuce, and became five-eighths of an inch long by 
February 12th, 1874. On the 22nd of February it 
again moulted, and thenceforward fed well on dock 
and grass, attaining by March 9th the length of one 
and three-eighths inches. 

It was then cylindrical, moderately stout, and 
tapering gradually from the sixth segment towards 
the head, which was the smallest segment. The 
hinder segment tapered a little towards the extremity. 
The ground colour was of an ochreous or brownish- 
drab, much striated with darkish-brown on the back, 
and the dorsal fine thread-like line of drab is enclosed 
by a blackish-brown stripe or bordering. The sub- 
dorsal fine line is of the same drab ground colour, 
running between two widish blackish-brown stripes ; 
it is a little interrupted on each segment, and these 



NOCTUA BELLA. 41 

double dark stripes are repeated along the side with 
a similar fine drab line running through them ; along 
the middle space of the side it is much freckled with 
blackish-brown. The spiracles are blackish with drab 
centres, but hardly to be noticed, as they appear black 
to the unaided eye; immediately beneath them was a 
stripe of pale drab, paler still at its edges, and freckled 
and streaked along the middle with greyish-brown. 
The belly is brown, freckled with minute atoms of 
drab ; the plate on the second segment is not shining, 
but pale brown, sparingly freckled with darker. The 
whole skin of the rest of the body is rather soft and 
velvety ; the head is of a warm brown, with a blackish- 
brown stripe down the front of each lobe, and is very 
shining ; the anterior legs are brown, and the ventral 
Jegs rather a pale brown tipped with darker brown 
hooks. 

This larva ceased to feed on March 24th, and spun 
itself up in a dock leaf on the surface of the earth on 
the 26th, and the moth, a female, appeared on the 
27th May, 1874. (W. B., 1874, Note Book II, 53.) 



NOCTUA UMBR0SA. 

Plate LXXVIII, fig. 2. 

The larva of this species having eluded the search 
of myself and many of my friends for a number of 
years, a belief gained ground with us that it probably 
closely resembled that early pest N. xanthographa; 
and this belief was strengthened three or four years 
ago by the fact of Mr. Harwood having bred one 
specimen of N. umbrosa from a lot of larvae which he 
had collected as those of N. xanthographa. 

I have at length been able to prove our surmise to 
be correct, thanks to Mr. George Norman, to whom I 
feel deeply indebted for his taking much pains in 
obtaining and sending me from Forres, three separate 
batches of eggs of N. umbrosa, on July 27th, 28th, 



42 NOCTUA TJMBKOSA. 

and 30th, 1870. From them, the young larvae began 
to hatch respectively on August 3rd, 5th, and 11th. 
At first, grass was provided for them, but they refused 
to eat, and some of them died. I then supplied them 
with dock leaves, and thenceforth all went well ; they 
fed and throve satisfactorily ; but towards the end of 
November, dock began to fail, and the few leaves I 
could then obtain were supplemented with bramble, of 
which the larvae partook freely. My chief object 
being to obtain figures of the larvae, I did all I could 
think of to force them on to full growth, and succeeded 
with some of them by feeding with Plantago lanceolata, 
Galium mollugo, Vinca major, and garden-strawberry 
leaves, all of which they ate at intervals, when the 
rigour of winter in the least abated. At length the 
Periwinkle became the only food procurable, and on 
this they did very well, for even while the snow lay on 
the ground, the leaves of this plant continued green 
and succulent ; thus, between the intervals of hard 
frost, the larvae crawled out of their temporary 
hybernacula of curled- up, dry bramble leaves, and 
partook of their food. Of course, they were not kept 
in the open air, but in a room without a fire, so that 
at no time were they exposed to frost. 

Towards the end of February and beginning of 
March, 1871, young dock leaves began to appear, and 
with an increase of temperature, the larvae became 
more lively and hungry ; the smaller ones, whose coats 
had become dingy, now moulted and fed, while the 
others that had reached their full growth about 
Christmas began to stir and show symptoms of 
approaching pupation ; they grew smaller, their colours 
merged into a darkness, which spread over them as 
they retired into moss ; several of them becoming 
pupae between February 27th and March 11th. 

The others continued to feed chiefly on dock, with 
a little of Scrophularia aquatica, and attained their 
full size the first week in April ; they then, however, 
like their predecessors, began to dwindle, and became 



NOCTUA UMBROSA. 43 

darker and darker till they were blackish-brown. A 
few entered the earth, the rest went into moss, where 
they assumed the pupa state, but without forming any 
cocoon in either ; though those in the moss appeared 
to be steadied in their positions by a slight thread or 
two. The moths appeared from June 8th to 13th. 

The egg is circular, domed above and flattened 
beneath, finely ribbed and reticulated. When first 
laid, it is of a yellowish- white colour, and changes in 
six days to a glistening pink, and finally to pinkish- 
grey. * 

The young larva, when hatched, had at first a pale 
brown head, and greenish-grey body, paler and pellucid 
at the segmental divisions ; in eight or nine days they 
were pale, semi-transparent, yellowish-green, with 
distinct black dots. At their next change, at the end 
of another week, they were three-eighths of an inch 
long, and not translucent, but with a suffusion of 
opaque-brown over the back and sides, giving them a 
velvety brownish-green look ; and there then appeared 
dorsal, subdorsal, and lateral lines, paler than the 
ground ; between the lateral line and spiracles the 
space was filled with a darker tint of the ground 
colour, forming a broad dark stripe. At this stage 
the character of N. umbrosa is very distinct from its 
congener, and remains so until the length of about 
five-eighths of an inch is attained ; but the next moult 
introduces the design that at once recalls the well- 
known N. xanthographa, and continues throughout 
their future larval career. 

There were three varieties of the general colouring 
in each of the three broods, some being yellowish, 
some brownish, and others of a greyish-brown, but in 
the detail of their markings they were all very constant. 
The individual from which the following description 
was drawn was one of the yellowish varieties : 

The full-grown larva is from one and a quarter to 
one and three-eighths inches in length, moderately 
stout and cylindrical, though tapering a little at the 



44 NOCTUA UMBftOSA. 

anterior segments, the head being smallest, the last 
segment also sloping down on the back from the 
twelfth, and tapering a little to the extremity. Viewed 
on the back, the colour of the head is pale brownish, 
freckled with darker brown, and streaked with brown 
on the front of each lobe, and very shining; the skin 
generally smooth and rather velvety on the rest of the 
body, though a little shining on the back of the second 
segment ; the dorsal line is very pale whitish-ochreous, 
edged with a dark brown line on each side ; it is not 
quite a simple line, but commencing broad on the 
front of each segment, soon narrows, expands again 
just at the middle, again contracts, and widens again 
at the end ; the subdorsal line is of uniform thickness 
throughout its course, and is also of the same whitish- 
ochreous tint, edged on its lower side with a fine dark 
brown line, and on its upper side by a wider brown 
stripe, bearing a black dash, sometimes rather of a 
wedge shape, on the anterior half of each segment; 
the ground colour of the back between the lines is 
ochreous or brownish, marked with fine longitudinal 
dark brown wavy streaks, which are variously disposed 
in their aggregation, sometimes suffusing the ground 
colour in a narrow diamond form ; in other examples 
more suffused behind, but generally these streaks give 
more depth of colouring at the anterior part of each 
segment ; the front pairs of tubercular dots are black, 
and they often send forward a fine black streak ; the 
hinder pairs are also black, but, from standing within 
the before-mentioned black dashes, are invisible ; the 
twelfth segment has the subdorsal lines slanting 
inwards for two-thirds of its length, where the last 
pair of the black dashes end abruptly, as do also the 
suffused, wavy streaks, and from that part the sub- 
dorsal lines bend outwards, and resume their former 
course, approximating towards the end of the dorsal 
line at the anal extremity ; the colouring of the side, 
as far down as the spiracles, consists of two longi- 
tudinal broad bands or stripes of equal width through- 



NOOTTJA UMBROSA. 45 

out, the upper being pale ochreous (sometimes bearing 
a few brown scattered freckles), the lower dark brown, 
containing a slanting dash of still darker brown made 
up of atoms ; on the lower edge of this come the 
spiracles, which are not very conspicuous, being small 
dirty whitish, outlined faintly with black. The sub- 
spiracular stripe is of pale unfreckled ochreous, and is 
attenuated a little at each end ; the belly and legs are 
of a very slightly deeper tint of the same, and there 
are some minute tubercular dots and freckles of dark 
brown above and upon the legs, which are tipped with 
dark brown. 

The pupa is about half an inch in length, moderately 
stout and smooth, with no striking peculiarity of form, 
dark brown in colour, and rather shining. (W. B., 
September, 1871, E.M.M., VIII, 139, November, 1871.) 



NOCTUA SOBRINA. 

Plate LXXIX, fig. 1. 

On the 1 5th of August, 1 874, I received from 
Mr. John T. Carrington, then at Camachgouran, 
Loch Eannoch, Pitlochry, N.B., fourteen eggs of 
this rare species, deposited on August 1st, by a 
female taken in copula. Two of them were not fertile. 
The eggs were loose in a piece of quill. 

The egg is globular, having a small depression at 
one end, and about thirty ribs. On arrival the 
eggs, with the exception of two of a bright pale yellow, 
were of a rather deep flesh colour ; these on the 
21st had become pinkish-brown, on the 22nd of a 
blackish-purple. On the morning of the 23rd three 
young larv39 were hatched, and seemed strong and 
active. Their heads were shining blackish-brown, 
their bodies purplish-brown, darkest on the back within 
the subdorsal region, and with a plate of darker brown 
on the second segment. By the 28th, eleven eggs out 
of the twelve were hatched, one having failed. 



46 NOCTTJA SOBRINA. 

The young larvae were at first provided with heather, 
bramble, and bilberry in a bottle, but they chose 
heather, on changing which one larva was lost, and 
another found dead at the bottom of the bottle. My 
stock, thus reduced to nine larvae, fed chiefly on the 
heather and on knot-grass, and a little of the green 
cuticle of a soft leaf of young birch, still rejecting the 
bilberry. On the 31st they had become of the same 
green colour as the heather, but semi-transparent with 
minute blackish dots and hairs and brown heads. 
On the 12th of September, I found two had moulted, 
and others were preparing. The new dress consisted 
of a dark brownish-olive opaque-surfaced dorsal coat, 
greyish and semi-transparent at the segmental divi- 
sions, the head pale greyish-brown and glossy, the black 
ocelli very distinct, the lobes on the crown blackish- 
brown, a pale greyish-ochreous faint dorsal Hue having 
beyond the fourth a distinct roundish paler ochreous 
spot near the end of each segment as far as the twelfth 
segment, whereon they end ; a fainter subdorsal fine 
line of greyish-ochreous, but much interrupted, so as 
to be visible chiefly towards the end of each segment ; 
the dark colouring of the back extends to the spiracu- 
lar region, which is edged with black ; this is followed 
by a subspiracular stripe of drab colour, and the belly 
is a much darker drab ; the tubercular dots are black, 
each with a fine hair. On September 29th one again 
moulted ; the details are as above with the exception 
of the ground colour, which is now deep crimson- 
brown and velvety ; it is just a quarter of an inch 
in length. On the 21st I found one had died, my 
number thus being reduced to four, the most advanced 
of which has just moulted, and is at present of a light 
chestnut colour. On the 11th of December it was 
five-eighths of an inch long and stout in proportion, 
and had for a fortnight been eating decaying and 
dead leaves of birch and a little grass, the other 
three generally hybernating, sitting up on the leaves 
in the form of S. The largest at this time was 



NOCTCTA SOBRINA. 47 

deep reddish or crimson-brown above as far as the 
spiracles, below these and on the belly a lighter tint of 
the same. The back is freckled with darker brown, 
and with paler. The dorsal line is a double line of 
dark brown, best seen at the beginning of a segment, 
becoming fainter afterwards, enclosing a thread of the 
ground colour which towards the middle of each seg- 
ment shows pale whitish-cream colour for a short 
distance, and after a short interval appears (on the 
first segmental subdivision) as a roundish wider spot 
of pale whitish-cream colour (quite isolated). This 
spot varies a little in its form on each segment, 
inclining a little towards ovate, or else squarish, less 
distinct on the twelfth segment, and smaller on the 
thoracic ones. The subdorsal line is similarly com- 
posed of two rather interrupted dark brown lines con- 
taining two or three pale cream-coloured small spots 
or freckles ; the most distinct is opposite the largest 
dorsal spot ; just beneath this on the side is a blackish- 
brown blotch ; the spiracles are of the ground colour 
margined with black. Below the spiracles is a ragged 
freckly rather interrupted line of flesh colour and 
another a little below as though they were the pale 
edgings of a subspiracular stripe ; the belly is also 
freckled with flesh colour ; the front legs are light- 
brown, the others freckled with flesh colour, especially 
the front of the anal pair. The tubercular dots are 
blackish but not well visible, excepting on the two 
last segments. The head is brown with blackish- 
brown on the crown of each lobe. (W. B., 1874, 
Note Book II, 99, 100, 104.) 

On the 17th of June, 1880, I purchased three full- 
grown larvse from Mr. T. W. Salvage, then at Inner- 
hadden, Kinloch-Rannoch, Perthshire, feeding on birch 
and heather. The larva of the darkest variety was one 
and one-eighth of an inch or a trifle more in length 
when stretched out in walking, plump and cylindrical, 
much rounded behind, tapering at the anal segment 
and from the second to the head, which was the 



48 NOCTUA SOBEINA. 

smallest. The ground colour was reddish or red- 
brown, slightly mottled with grey ; the dorsal mark- 
ing was almost linear, widening a little slightly but 
narrowly lozenge fashion near the end of each segment 
and having on this widest part a round pale spot of 
dirty ochreous, the sides much mottled with grey 
atoms, strongly along the spiracular region. The 
belly and subspiracular stripe of a paler dirty pinkish- 
brown ochreous, the latter rather palest ; the tuber- 
cular dots most minute and black ; spiracles black ; 
the head shining brownish-ochreous with two black 
dots in front of each lobe ; ocelli black ; the body 
soft and velvety ; a slight indication of the usual 
Noctua-like transverse marking is faintly visible on 
the twelfth segment and more faintly still on some 
others ; a round pale spot on the side is beneath each 
hind dot of the trapezoidals, though less noticeable 
than that on the dorsal marking. Another variety, 
figured on the 19th, is of deep brownish-ochreous pink 
freckled and mottled with grey and pale flesh colour. 
These three larvse matured rapidly and then entered 
the peaty soil. (W. B., 1880, Note Book IV, 12.) 



Paohnobia alpina. 

Plate LXXX, fig. 2. 

On the 27th of July, 1878, I received eighty-five 
good eggs and one infertile of this species, laid within 
two glass-bottomed boxes, one of which contained ten 
eggs and the other the remainder, from Mr. E. Gr. Meek. 
When first laid the eggs were pale yellow and, with 
only a single exception loose, were all adhering to the 
paper lining chiefly, just a few being on the glass. 
When they reached me they had changed colour to a 
dirty whitish or pale straw ground-colour, having a 
central blotch at the top of blackish-brown and a little 
below a broad irregular zone, very ragged-edged, of deep 



PAOHNOBIA ALPINA. 49 

purplish-pink. A few became all over purplish-brown 
the same evening. The egg is very strongly and 
boldly marked with this dark colouring, the paler 
ground whitish-straw. Twenty hours before hatch- 
ing it assumes one uniform purplish-grey tint like the 
bloom on grapes, bat glistening. The eggs were laid in 
little scattered groups and singly. The shape of the egg 
is circular, rounded above, rather flattened beneath, 
rather boldly ribbed and reticulated, and slightly 
glistening, becoming paler just before hatching. On 
the 1st of August one egg hatched, and on the 2nd 
half the number were hatched by early morning, 
two more late in the evening, and on the 3rd all but 
four or five w r ere hatched by early morning, and of the 
remainder one at noon. 

When just hatched the young larva is of a smoky 
olive-grey colour with dark shining brown head and 
plate on second segment, and with minute blackish 
dots on the body. Given bilberry for food at first 
they soon riddled the leaves with small holes. First 
moult ? By the 12th they had become of a dingy 
brownish olive-green with minute blackish tubercular 
dots, blackish-brown heads and small plates on second 
segment. Some were olive-green, skin rather shining. 
August 15th, a few had moulted (I think for the 
second time) and the rest were preparing to moult. 
Wow after this moult the colour is velvety-brown with 
faintly paler dorsal and subdorsal lines which pass 
through the second segment like the others, the little 
darker plate having almost disappeared and become 
velvety ; the belly paler and rather greyish-ochreous ; 
the dots black. They seem not to care for heather. 
They not only skeletonize the bilberry leaves, but eat 
rather large holes through them. On the 26th of 
August I removed them from the test bottles, all in 
good health, for only four individuals had died since 
they were hatched. October 28th, the last two larvae 
are dead; after the bilberry plants had shed their 
leaves, birch, sallow, and heather were supplied as 

vol. v. 4 



50 PACHNOBIA ALPINA. 

food, but though they fed a little, yet they began to 
die off by threes and fours until all were dead. Their 
natural food, Empetrum nigrum, I was unable to get. 
This larva feeds up in May and June, and is in pupa 
only a month. (W. B., 1878, Note Book III, 246). 

On June 17th, 1880, arrived two larvse of this 
species, which I bought of Mr. T. W. Salvage, then at 
Innerhadden, Kinloch-Rannoch, Perthshire, said to be 
feeding on Empetrum nigrum, the Crowberry. They 
were little more than one inch long, and I found 
them eat whortleberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), though 
sparingly. On the 19th, I saw one, the largest of the 
two, was soon about to moult ; this was a much lighter 
variety and rather handsome. The other, a dark 
variety, I figured on the 21st. 

It is of the usual Noctua form, cylindrical, tapering 
at the second segment to the head, and also at the 
13th segment. In colour it is dark velvety purplish- 
brown above and pinkish-drab below; the head is 
brown and glossy, having a corona of darker brown 
freckles beginning on the crown, which are broadly 
continued down the side at the back of each lobe in a 
curve till they approach the ocelli ; on the second seg- 
ment is a narrow crescentic velvety black-brown plate, 
very finely dorsally and subdorsally divided with the 
ground colour ; subdorsal fine pale drab lines rather 
interrupted at the end of each segment, or, showing but 
faintly and near the beginning of a segment, are 
bordered above with a black dash, most conspicuous on 
segments eight, nine, ten, eleven and twelve ; the paler 
ventral colouring commences along the spiracular 
region, distinctly but not abruptly marked in any way ; 
the spiracles are black ; a black- brown velvety plate is 
on the anal flap ; the dorsal pattern is a top shape, 
pointing backward, of dark purplish-brown, and a 
central or dorsal spot of black at the beginning of each 
segment; skin rather rugose. On the 23rd, after 
moulting in the morning at ten o'clock, the largest 
larva, which had been laid up for this event four days 



PAOHNOBiA ALPINA. 51 

previously, had now become much darker, and the 
head and plate remained so pale a flesh colour as to be 
almost whitish, in singular contrast with the body, 
but in a few hours regained its former brown colour, 
but the larva skin is more rugose, neither velvety 
nor shining. On the 28th, I figured another larva 
in its penultimate coat of a deep brownish-pink, 
the dorsal and subdorsal thread-like lines of dirty 
whitish with a row of black dashes above on the latter, 
and blackish edging to the former just at the begin- 
ing and ending of a segment. 

It is to be recorded that the larva, besides bil- 
berry, will eat birch a little withered, also arbutus, 
especially the younger leaves, indeed the older leaves 
too, and as freely as though it were its natural food. 

The penultimate skin of Pachnobia alpina is rather 
handsome, and proves by its pattern of markings to 
belong to the genus Noctua, and should be in its 
proper place at the end of that genus. 

After the last moult its skin is seen to be pachy- 
dermatous, for to compare small things with great, its 
skin is like that, of an elephant, leathery and rough 
with wrinkles, the pattern being composed of black 
freckles upon a deep rosy brownish-red ground ; on the 
belly a few paler or flesh-coloured freckles appear 
on the reddish ground, without any black ones. One 
larva (subj. 3.) moulted the last time on June 21st, 
and in a day or two the change from its former 
gaily- coloured coat to the more sombre full dress was 
very remarkable. The behaviour of this individual 
was very wilful and intractable ; when put under a 
glass it roved round and round eager to escape, but 
after a while finding it impossible, it coiled itself partly 
round and went to sleep for many hours, and when 
in this condition was not easily waked. Indeed the 
natural habit of this and three other examples is to 
sleep all the day through and to feed only at night, and 
even then rather sparingly, as proved by there being 



52 PACHNOBIA ALPINA. 

only two, or at most three, pellets of frass to be found 
with each larva each morning. 

The dorsal marks are diamond shapes of blackish 
minute freckles. 

Subj. fig. 1, which has with me been feeding sparingly 
since the 17th of June, is now (July 9th) laid up in pre- 
paration for a moult, and in the afternoon of the 12th 
it was accomplished ; it grew afterwards a little and 
became like subj. 3 in colour and roughness, but was 
not so large, and it ceased to feed and went to earth 
on July 27th. 

Subj. fig. 2 died on July 20th. 

Subj. fig. 3 grew to be one and a half inch long and 
stout in proportion, and uniformly so throughout, the 
head being but a trifle smaller than the second segment, 
and the thirteenth a little tapered behind ; this indivi- 
dual about the middle of July was decreasing in bulk 
and length, and though put then with earth it seemed 
too late for it to go under or make up as I expected, 
and it remained on the surface and died gradually. 

Subj. 4 kept feeding chiefly on arbutus and was but 
little grown by the 7th of August. (W. B., 1880, 
Note Book IV, 21). 

Thirty eggs of P. alpina sent by Mr. Meek from 
Shetland arrived 9th July, 1880. They were precisely 
similar to those of 1878, recorded in Note Book 
III, p. 246. On the 13th of July they turned all 
over a dingy brownish-slate colour, the coarse ribs 
very glistening, and next day became a pale grey 
colour. One larva was hatched on the evening of the 
14th, and eleven more by next morning. 

The young larvse, in the course of a few hours, took 
to birch and more sparingly to arbutus, and the next 
day quite freely to whortleberry, and did well until I 
left home for six days, when on my return on July 
30th, I found all were dead but two ; another died 
on August 4th, and the last on the 5th. (W. B., 1880, 
Note Book IV, 23.) 



TJ]NTOOAMPA GOTHICINA. 53 

T^ilNIOCAMPA GOTHICINA. 

[Plate LXXX, fig. 3, T. gothica*] 

A batch of eggs sent by Mr. John Dunsmore, of 
Paisley, on June 6th, were all hatched in coming to 
me on the 7th. Only one empty egg-shell remained 
uneaten. This was round and domed at the top, 
flattened beneath, finely ribbed and reticulated, white 
in colour, with a large hole in the side where the larva 
made its exit. 

The young larva is of a slaty-green colour, head, 
narrow plate behind it, and fine tubercular dots black. 
By the 14th they were nearly a quarter of an inch 
long, with pale yellowish-green head, darker bluish- 
green body, having bluish-white dorsal and subdorsal 
lines, and a greenish-white subspiracular stripe, head 
and pale yellow-green plate dotted with black, a line of 
paler freckles on each side of the back just above the 
subdorsal region, and tubercular dots black. By the 
23rd they had grown considerably, the most advanced 
by this date being seven-eighths of an inch in length, 
their colouring much the same as before. By July 1st 
the most forward measured about an inch and a half 
in length ; ground colour of some bluish-green, of 
others yellowish-green, yellowish at segmental folds, 
yellowish or yellowish-white freckles on the back, 
much fainter, hardly noticeable, on the belly ; dorsal 
line yellow, also the subdorsal, but thinner and a trifle 
broken ; the inflated spiracular stripe is irregularly 
bordered on the side above with blackish more or less ; 
the upper edge of the stripe itself is pale yellow, 
sharply defined against the black above it, and the 
lower edge is gently defined with a thin faint line of 
yellowish, the oval spiracles white, outlined with black. 
Note. — In T. gothica the inflated spiracular stripe 

# The larva described as T. gothicina was not figured. It is now 
generally acknowledged that gothicina is only a variety of gothica. — 
E, McL. 



54 T^lNIOOAMPA GOTHIOTNA. 

is often wholly white. None of the black dots remain 
on the body, a yellow freckle larger than the others is 
substituted for each of them, excepting on the green 
shining head, where they are just discernible with a 
good lens ; the ends of the jaws black ; the skin of the 
body soft and velvety. (W. B., Note Book III, 82.) 

TiENIOOAMPA LEUCOGRAPHA. 

Plate LXXX, fig. 4. 

On the 28th April, 1871, I received a batch of eggs 
from Mr. Evan John, of Llantrisant, Glamorganshire. 
The eggs were laid on muslin and paper. 

The egg is globular, finely ribbed and reticulated, and, 
when first laid, of a pale straw-yellow, soon turning 
to pale flesh colour with a splash of brown on the top, 
and a ragged-looking irregular zone of brown round 
the middle. In a few days they began to grow of a 
pinkish-brown by degrees, the splash at top and the 
zone being merged into the same general colour. 
(W. B., 1871, Note Book I, 76.) 

Tjjniocampa opima. 
Plate LXXXI, fig. 2. 

A batch of eggs laid in a cluster on a stem of 
marram-grass was sent by Mr. G. T. Porritt on the 
17th April, 1872. Mr. Porritt stated that the moths 
of this species deposited their eggs also on the old 
withered remains of ragwort and houndstongue. 

The eggs at first are pale yellow and conspicuous 
on the dried-up remains of the plants even at a con- 
siderable distance, but gradually change to a purplish- 
brown, and so become inconspicuous. On the 23rd 
they began to grow of a leaden hue, and on the 24th 
were covered with a pale bluish tint like the bloom of 
ripe sloes, and in the afternoon they began to hatch. 

The young larvae were at first of a bluish-green, 



TJJNIOCAMPA OPIMA. 55 

with black heads, becoming gradually by the fifth day 
of a more dirty pale olive-greenish tint with blackish - 
brown head and small plate behind it. By the 5th of 
May they had moulted, their dark heads were gone, 
and they had become of a very pale coloured watery- 
greenish tint. 

Their food was osier, which they seemed to prefer 
to Rosa spinosissima or sallow, both of which were at 
first given them on account of their coast sand-hill 
origin. On the 7th May they had spun a quantity of 
fine web amongst the osier leaves. On the 9th of 
May the next moult gave them a dark blackish-grey 
or greenish coat with the lines greyish or whitish -grey, 
the tubercular black dots ringed with the same ; head 
and plate pale brownish-green, spotted with darker 
brown. On May 15th the body was grass-green, with 
lines of pale grey ; head and second segment dotted 
with black. By the 25th May they had become nearly 
three-quarters of an inch long, of rather a deep dull 
green on the back and sides, very finely freckled with 
blackish ; the subspiracular stripe paler yellowish- 
green, bordered above by a stripe of thickly freckled 
or of blackish atoms ; the dorsal line a little paler 
than the ground colour, and the subdorsal can also be 
faintly traced ; the head pale brownish-green. 

These all throve well up to the 5th of June, but 
then began to sicken and die off, all being dead by 
the 20th. (W. B., 1872, Note Book I, 166). 

Eggs from Miss Johnson, of Liverpool. Eggs 
turned blackish, laid in a heap together on the 
tops of small stems. They hatched April 24th 
and 25th, 1880. 

The young larvae were dingy slaty-green, with black 
head and plate ; growing gradually paler and paler. 

First moult May 1 st ; larvae very pale greenish, 
head green ; a small black plate on the second 
segment. 

Second moult May 6th ; larvae dingy dull bluish- 
green, with paler dorsal, subdorsal, and spiracular 



56 TJENIOCAMPA OPIMA. 

lines ; head and plate warmer shining green, both 
dotted with black ; the minute tubercular dots black. 

Third moult, May 14th ; larvae darker dingy bluish- 
green ; head and plate lighter green, glossy, and dotted 
with black ; the dorsal and subdorsal lines and spira- 
cular stripe rather whitish; above this last runs a 
stripe of darker blackish-green, and above that a 
faint whitish edging or a rather broken line ; tuber- 
cular dots whitish with black centres. 

Fourth moult, May 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th; 
larvae at first half to five-eighths of an inch long, but 
uniformly stouter in proportion ; the lines of pale 
greenish ground colour, the spaces between them 
thickly freckled with dingy blackish-green ; the dark 
stripe on the side quite blackish above the broad pale 
spiracular stripe ; head shining yellowish-green dotted 
with black; plate of same colour, but velvety, and 
with few black dots ; tubercular dots scarcely to be 
distinguished from the freckling. 

Fifth moult, May 23rd, and onward to 27th ; the 
larvae now much as before, but the spiracular 
stripe is pale yellower green, almost yellow ; the 
black stripe next above is very strong, so close 
together are the freckles of which it is composed ; the 
head and collar-plate rather olive-green, the same on 
the anal flap ; the lines of the body yellow-green, also 
the tubercular dots in threes ; the ground of the back 
thickly covered with minute black freckles ; the black 
dots on the head very small, and almost obliterated on 
the collar-plate. 

Sixth moult, May 27th, with one or two others on 
the 28th, 29th and 30th; larvae now immediately 
after moulting one and one-eighth inches in length ; 
back and sides blackish olive-green, thickly freckled 
with blackish, and sprinkled with some pale yellowish ; 
the belly pale greenish-yellow, the spiracular stripe 
still yellower, and very much paler, almost white 
next the black-atomed stripe above ; head and plate 
light olive ? the former reticulated with brown and 



TZENIOCAMPA OPIMA. 57 

shining, the latter dull with front margin darker, the 
dorsal and subdorsal lines very thin, and paler than 
the ground , tubercular dots paler, still in threes, but 
so small as not to be noticeable without a lens ; 
spiracles oval, white, finely outlined with black. The 
colouring by degrees in a day or two on the back and 
sides turns of a rich velvety brown, and, just at last, 
of a crimson-brown, in strong contrast to the brilliant 
greenish-yellow of the belly and lighter yellow spira- 
cular stripe. 

They have been from the very first most vora- 
cious feeders in proportion to their size, consuming 
great quantities of sallow. They began to enter the 
earth, a few on June 4th, 5th, 6th and 8th, and at 
intervals up to the 18th. The moths appeared from 
the 11th of March to the 27th of April, 1881. (W. B., 
1881, Note Book IV, 10.) 



T^NIOOAMPA GRACILIS. 

Plate LXXXI, fig. 5. 

Variety of the larva of Tseniocampa gracilis. — To 
those who know the larva of this species only in its 
more usual bluish-green, or yellowish olive-green coat, 
the following description, given me by Mr. Buckler, 
of a variety sent him from Epping, will seem strange ; 
but there can be no doubt as to the moth which was 
bred from it. 

The ground colour of the larva was deep broivn 
tinged with pink, the slender dorsal and subdorsal 
lines of the same, but showing rather paler ; along 
the region of the spiracles, and reaching half-way 
down the anal pro-legs, a broad stripe of pale dingy 
pink, sharply edged above with a fine blackish line ; 
belly and legs of the ground colour ; the usual dots 
appeared dark brown within paler rings, and the back 
was slightly freckled with the paler tint. (J. H., 
February 23, 1865, E.M.M., I, 283, May, 1865.) 



58 MNIOCAMPA CRUDA. 



T^NIOCAMPA CRUDA. 

Plate LXXXII, fig. 2. 

On the 2nd of April, 1871, I received from Mr. 
F. E. Harman, of Whitfield, near Hereford, a few 
eggs (or rather larvse, as they had hatched on the 
way) of this insect. When just emerged the caterpillar 
is dirty greenish, with a rather large, shining black 
head. Until a length of about half an inch has been 
attained, it lives in a sort of retreat formed by drawing 
together, by means of silken threads, several leaves ; 
and afterwards it still forms a similar retreat in which 
to moult. 

The adult larva is about one and a quarter inch in 
length, and of moderate bulk in proportion. Head 
globular, about the same width as, or perhaps very 
slightly broader than, the second segment ; body 
cylindrical, and of uniform thickness throughout ; skin 
smooth and soft, semi-translucent, and rather glossy. 
The ground colour is dark smoky-green, variegated 
with yellowish-green, in some specimens the yellowish- 
green predominating ; both the ground and markings 
vary in intensity in different specimens. Head smooth 
and shining, grey, very thickly marked and dotted 
with intense black; there is a black shining plate-like 
mark on the second, and another on the anal segment ; 
that on the second is divided by the medio-dorsal 
and subdorsal lines. The medio-dorsal stripe is 
yellowish-white ; the subdorsal lines narrower, white; 
two parallel waved lines of the same colour as the 
medio-dorsal stripe form the spiracular lines ; these 
waved lines form a sort of chain-like band of oblong 
spaces, and in the centre of each space, just below the 
upper line, the black spiracles are situated ; the trape- 
zoidal dots also black. Ventral surface and pro legs 
uniformly dull yellowish green ; the legs black. 

Rests on a leaf, with the head bent considerably 
round to one side. My larva? fed on whitethorn ; and 



TiENIOCAMPA CRUDA. 59 

were full-grown and went down May 28th. (G. T. 
Porritt, 8th June, 1872; Ent., VI, 138, July, 1872.) 



OtiTHOSIA SUSPECTA. 

Plate LXXXII, fig. 3. 

In 1891, Orthosia suspecta seemed to be unusually 
abundant in all its localities, and was especially so at 
York, where throughout August it occurred in the 
utmost profusion. Mr. William Hewett, of that city, 
obtained eggs from specimens he captured there, part 
of which he very kindly sent to me, and part to Dr. 
Chapman, of Hereford. Mine, which I received on 
September 20th, were deposited in a batch at the 
bottom of a chip box, and were of ordinary globular 
form, very glossy and smooth, the colour pale pinkish- 
brown. They were kept outdoors all winter, and at 
quite the end of April began to hatch out. Unfortu- 
nately, I had to be in London at the time, and 
through my inability to properly attend to them 
there, all died. Fortunately, Dr. Chapman was more 
successful with his, and on May 1 8th, he very kindly 
let me have two larvas, which were then nearly full- 
grown, and I described them at once as follows : 

Length, when at rest about three-quarters, when 
crawling seven-eighths of an inch, and moderately 
plump in proportion ; head small and polished, the 
lobes rounded ; it is rather narrower than the 
second, and considerably narrower than the third, 
segment ; body rounded, slightly swollen from the 
segmental divisions ; it gradually thickens from the 
head to the fifth segment, beyond which it is of nearly 
uniform width to the twelfth, when it tapers oft 
rather abruptly ; segmental divisions well defined, the 
skin smooth and velvety. 

Ground colour, as far as the spiracular region, 
purplish-brown ; head yellow-brown, strongly marked 



60 ORTROSIA SUSPECTA. 

with black, a streak of black extending from the top 
of each lobe being most noticeable; a narrow, polished 
black plate on the second segment ; dorsal line almost 
clear white, and on the dark ground is very conspi- 
cuous ; subdorsal lines very indistinct — except in the 
plate on the second segment, where they show clearly 
— and seem to be composed of an interrupted series 
of faint bluish-white streaks and dots ; on each seg- 
ment between the dorsal and subdorsal lines is a 
large square purplish-black mark, and these marks, 
together with the pale dorsal line, form the most 
noticeable feature in the larva. There are no per- 
ceptible spiracular lines, but the spiracles are black 
and very distinct. The usual trapezoidal dots small 
and indistinct, of the pale colour of the subdorsal 
lines. 

Ventral area and pro-legs uniformly dingy glaucous- 
green, with a purplish tinge; the anterior legs pale 
straw-colour, and having immediately in front, and 
also immediately behind each of them, a short black 
streak. 

The larvse fed up well on birch, and on or about 
May 23rd, both dissappeared below the surface of the 
earth for pupation. 

The moths, perfect specimens, emerged together on 
June 16, a month earlier than the species is usually 
seen in a wild state in Yorkshire. (GL T. Porritt, 7th 
January, 1893, E.M.M., XXIX, 41, February, 1893.) 

As Mr. Porritt did not see the young larva of 
0. susjpecta, I add a few notes of my own observa- 
tions : 

The eggs were packed closely together side by side, 
and appeared to have been thrust in between two sur- 
faces, and it resulted both from this (if so) and also 
from a real identity, that they reminded me greatly of 
those of Gerastis vaccinii. A closer examination only 
confirmed this impression ; the diameter was 0*8 mm., 
most of the eggs were more or less distorted, indented, 
or flattened, so that it was only by securing a favour- 



ORTHOSIA SUSPBCTA. 61 

able specimen that it was seen to have a fine cone, 
surrounded by an irregular raised wall, formed by the 
summits of the ribs, about thirty-one in number, and 
badly defined. The eggs were in places covered by 
a pavement of battledore moth scales, whether pur- 
posely, or by accident I could not be sure. 

I got some G. vaccinii eggs to compare, and could 
really detect no difference. The young larvaB of both 
were much alike, but 0. suspecta tied its leaves together 
more or less, a habit which I have never noticed in 
G. vaccinii, the larva being satisfied with such shelter 
as curled or applied leaves afford. 

When in their penultimate skins, they were of almost 
the same outline, G. suspecta much darker in colouring. 
In tubercles, head hairs, plates on second and 
fourteenth segments, and especially in the forms of the 
marblings, from which the markings of Orthosia larvae 
result, they are identical ; both also taper remarkably 
to the head, a feature which is even more pronounced in 
adult 0. suspecta, but is nearly lost in adult G. vaccinii. 
The most evident difference (apart from the darker 
colouring of 0. suspecta) is that in 0. suspecta the 
pale dorsal line is very marked and distinct, and 
the subtrapezoidal line is broken into by the mar- 
blings, so as to be discontinuous, though recognisable 
as a line. In G. vaccinii the subtrapezoidal is more 
pronounced than the dorsal line, it is ragged, but 
broad enough not to be quite interrupted by the mar- 
blings. The dorsal line in G. vaccinii is narrow, 
and differs little from the ground colour, though it 
is as smooth and well defined as in 0. suspecta. 

In accordance with the darker colour of G. suspecta, 
the pale dots around the tubercles are smaller, and 
hardly form a feature in the general facies of the 
larva, and in the case of the anterior trapezoidals, 
they do not extend in front of the tubercles. Simi- 
larly, the plate on second segment has its dark areas 
both darker and rather larger in 0. suspecta. 

The lateral line separating the .darker dorsal from 



62 OETHOSIA SUSPECTA. 

the paler ventral portion of the larva has the same 
disposition in both. It takes in the pale area round 
the anterior spiracular tubercle, from which a pale 
line goes beneath the spiracle, thus claiming the 
spiracle for the line or dorsal area. On the eleventh 
and twelfth segments the spiracles are plainly in the 
dorsal area in both species. In 0. suspecta the inner 
margin of the subtrapezoidal line on the dorsal plate 
of segment two is curved inwards ; in 0. vaccinii 
nearly straight. All this takes long description, but 
as a matter of fact, the actual differences are trifling ; 
so that up to this point 0. suspecta and G. vaccinii 
present only trifling specific differences. 

In the last skin 0. suspecta retains the small head, 
and becomes so richly coloured as to remind one of 
Tdeniocampa rubricosa. 

The pupa is very like that of G. vaccinii, but more 
slender and tapering. The anal armature is also 
similar. In 0. suspecta the wrinkled boss is larger 
and longer, and so the secondary spines which cross 
the two principal lyre-shaped spines in G. vaccinii, 
arise further from the apex, and do not do more than 
fully reach them. 

In larvse and pupse the species of Xanthia and 
Orihosia differ from each other, often in small matters 
only, and Cerastis is not far off, but 0. suspecta much 
more resembles Cerastis than it does Xanthia or Or- 
thosia, at least as pupa, and as egg and young larva. 
(T. A. Chapman, January, 1893, E.M.M., XXIX, 42, 
February, 1893.) 



Anchooelis rufina. 

Plate LXXXIII, fig. 1. 

On October 27th, 1882, Messrs. J. and W. Davis 
sent me three dozen eggs of this species laid on a piece 
of oak twig, side by, side in rows and scattered groups 



ANCHOOELIS RUFINA. 63 

on the bark, to which they closely assimilated in 
colour. 

The egg is of a circular shape, flattened beneath and 
rounded above, and numerously ribbed and rather 
glistening ; in colour pinkish-brown above with a 
paler blotch on one side of the circumference ; a zone 
follows of rather deeper pinkish-brown ; and the base 
is a pale drab tint. On the 4th of April, 1883, some 
of the eggs changed to dark drab and others to a 
lighter colour of a pale drab all over ; and by the even- 
ing of the 5th six hatched, two in the morning of the 
6th, three on the 8th, four on the 9th, one in the even- 
ing, two on the 10th, one on the 11th, and one on the 
12th. 

The young larvse, which were fed with elm buds just 
bursting, appeared strong and vigorous, and looped 
in walking. Their colour was a tender drab- grey, or 
pinkish-grey, with deeper grey-brown dorsal vessel 
showing through the skin as far as the tenth segment ; 
the head lightish brown and glossy ; tubercles indis- 
tinct, but the hairs from them very perceptible ; the 
last three segments dirty whitish, but in a few hours 
after feeding these became, like the rest of the body, 
a pale drab ; a light or whity-brown plate is on the 
second segment, well divided in the middle by two 
dusky lines and similarly edged at the sides ; the 
tubercles dusky and the hairs also ; in three days' 
time their bodies were of a uniform drab tint and 
showed the details of dusky dots and hairs distinctly. 
On the 14th of April they had become green with 
shining skin, having a whitish dorsal stripe, whitish 
subdorsal and lateral lines, and a broad whitish 
spiracular stripe ; when walking they loop, using three 
pairs of ventral legs, holding on with them and the 
anal pair, with the first ventral pair shorter and held 
free when at rest in the letter s-like posture ; on the 
17th, all the lines were, when seen through a lens, 
beautifully distinct ; only a brown outline discernible 
of the front plate, as the second segment is marked 



64 ANCHOCELIS RUFINA. 

like the others. On the 21st, some were laid up, and 
others had got over their moult; the white stripes 
and lines are still more distinct than before, and the 
green ground is more bluish-green ; and a fine black 
line forms the edge in strong contrast to the very broad 
white spiracular stripe. On the 2nd of May, one had 
now moulted again (probably for the third time) ; it 
was noticeable now that the subdorsal and lateral lines 
are much faded and only just discernible ; the dorsal 
stripe is still whitish, and the broad spiracular stripe 
is as brilliantly white as ever; noticeable now too is 
the fact of the tubercular dots being changed from 
dark to light, as they are now rather whitish and larger 
in proportion. This stage was reached by most on the 
9th of May, though some were laid up in preparation ; 
the rich deep green colouring is now very bright. May 
12th,the most advanced have now changed from green 
to brown, though many are still green but dingier. On 
the 18th, when I figured one, the dorsal line is very 
dirty whitish ; the spiracular stripe remains pure 
white ; the other lines, though suffused with the 
ground colour, can yet be traced, though only by the 
dark freckly edging ; the tubercular dots are whitish 
and in threes on each side of the back ; the first of 
each three is the smallest ; the spiracles are black and 
at the upper edge of the white stripe ; its stoutness is 
now much increased and the length is nine lines. On 
the 24th they had again moulted, and on the 25th 
they measured one inch in length and most were of a 
brownish-green, others being brown, the details as 
before; the spiracular stripe still white; the paler 
spots still distinct ; during three days, although they 
had plenty of fresh food, yet they betrayed a propen- 
sity to cannibalism, as three that were laid up to 
moult were devoured, a part of one only remaining to 
account for the diminished number, On the 27th, 
several were found dead and flaccid, which caused me 
to change their food from elm to oak. Now, except- 
ing just on the thoracic segments, the dorsal stripe 



ANCHOCELIS RUFLNA. 65 

and the subdorsal and lateral lines are almost entirely 
suffused with the ground colouring, the spots paler 
and distinct, the spiracular stripe still conspicuously 
white. By the 1st of June they were full-grown and 
measured when stretched out one and a half to one 
and five- eighths of an inch, the thoracic segments 
tapering to the head, which is the smallest ; the rest 
of the body cylindrical ; segments plump ; the colour 
is rather olivaceous-brown, thickly freckled with 
darker so as to obliterate all lines, there being but 
slight paler indications of dorsal and subdorsal ones 
on the second, and all the spots slightly paler, denned 
with darker than the ground, in threes along the 
back ; the belly rather lighter but similar to the back ; 
the spiracles black, at the upper edge of a pure white 
stripe, which is attenuated towards the head and on 
the last segment ; a dark brown streak on each lobe 
of the head, which is finely reticulated. (W. B., 1882, 
Note Book IV, 179.) 



Anchocelis lunosa. 
Plate LXXXIII, fig. 3. 

I should not offer a description of this larva were it 
not that I think it scarcely comes under the generic 
characters given of the Anchocelis larvae in the 
' Manual,' whilst some of its distinguishing characters 
are omitted in the specific description after Guenee. 

In October, 1865, Mr. H. Terry sent us some eggs, 
the larvee from which I found feeding by the 28th of 
that month. They were then of a dull blue-green, 
with black heads, and rested on blades of grass, with 
their heads turned round sideways. On February 22nd, 
1866, I noted that they were of various lengths, from 
one-third to half an inch, and the smaller ones were 
still green, whilst most of the bigger ones (being a 
moult in advance) had a brownish tinge ; and all had 

VOL. V. 5 



66 ANCHOCELIS LUNOSA. 

a pale dorsal line and a pale ochreous collar behind 
the head. 

In April they attained their full growth, when I 
took the following description : Length, one and a 
quarter inches ; stoutish, cylindrical, tapering slightly 
towards the extremities ; head round ; dorsal plate on 
segments two and thirteen ; the warts large, con- 
spicuous, raised, and emitting bristles ; skin (not 
velvety, but) shining. Ground colour usually an olive- 
brown, darker all over the back as low as the subdorsal 
line ; dorsal and subdorsal lines fine, ochreous ; side 
below the subdorsal line paler than the back, but 
deepening towards the spiracles, which are placed in 
a dark line ; below the spiracles the colour is a dull 
purplish-brown ; head pale brown ; the plate on 
second segment pale yellow (very conspicuous) edged 
behind with black. 

There were varieties which retained a great deal of 
their juvenile greenness to the last, the side between 
the subdorsal line and the spiracles being more green 
than brown, and the belly pale greenish ; and there was 
one larva which remained quite green all over, the 
back being deepest in tint, just as in the brown variety ; 
the warts in this larva were not so conspicuous, but 
in every case the pale yellow of the second segment is 
very striking. (J. H., Jan. 28, 1867; E.M.M., III, 
260, April, 1867.) 



Anohocelis litttra. 

Plate LXXXIII, fig. 4. 

I owe my acquaintance with this as well as several 
other species, to the great kindness of Mr. George 
Norman, of Forres, who sent me a batch of eggs on 
October 2nd, 1869 ; they were mostly laid thickly 
together in a flattish mass on a piece of paper, though 
there were some few loose and separate from each 
other ; they began to hatch with Mr. Hellins at Exeter 



ANCHOOELIS L1TTJRA. 67 

on the 5th of April, 1870 ; by the 22nd, the larvae 
were three-eighths of an inch long ; by May 15th they 
had attained twice that length, and about the end of 
the month they, like mine, all went to earth ; the 
moths appeared September 2nd to 11th. With me, 
however, the eggs did not hatch before the 11th of 
April, 1870. 

The shape of the egg is circular, but flattened, and 
greatly depressed in the centre, slightly ribbed and 
reticulated, having withal a shrivelled, empty appear- 
ance, as though its contents had been squeezed or 
dried out of it ; the colour at first is pale yellow, soon 
after turning to a slightly pinkish leaden hue, and the 
shell is very glistening — in fact, the flat mass of eggs 
seemed smeared over with a coating of transparent 
varnish or gum, which I fancy would in nature attach 
them to some cover on the upper as well as the lower 
surface ; I think they would be laid in cracks, or under 
loose bits of bark ; as the time of hatching approached 
the colour seemed but very little heightened, and when 
the young larvae had emerged from them, the empty 
shells looked brilliantly crystalline. 

The newly-hatched larvae were pinkish-grey in 
colour, with the dorsal vessel appearing as a dark 
grey, leaden stripe, the pale brown head large in pro- 
portion ; within a fortnight they became of a dull 
flesh colour ; after the second moult they were pale 
greyish-green, and soon turned darker, then showing 
the usual lines pale and distinct, their length being 
now three-eighths of an inch, and their figure pro- 
portionately stout ; by the 6th of May they were five- 
eighths of an inch long, of a yellowish-green colour, 
the lines rather paler green, the tubercular dots 
exceedingly small and blackish ; by the 15th they 
were three-quarters of an inch long, of a pale yellow- 
green, the lines all present but unobtrusive ; up to 
this time they had fed almost entirely on the common 
garden monthly rose, which they preferred from the 
first to all other food given them in great variety from 



68 ANCHOCELIS LITDRA. 

time to time ; but at this period they were tried with 
bramble, and after tasting it, they no longer cared for 
rose, and thenceforward fed up chiefly on brambles of 
different species. 

The full-grown larva was one inch and a half in 
length, moderately stout, cylindrical, and uniform in 
bulk, with tolerably well-defined segmental divisions ; 
the colour on the back and sides, as far as the spiracles, 
green, somewhat inclining to olive, and freckled with 
a little darker green, and on this freckled surface the 
dorsal and subdorsal lines could be distinctly traced, 
a little paler than the ground, but edged with inter- 
rupted, freckly, almost blackish, lines, which, in some 
instances, especially with the dorsal line, seemed 
almost to obscure the pale line they enclosed ; the 
tubercular dots were also paler than the ground, and 
very finely ringed with darker green ; the boundary 
of this green colouring along the side was completed 
by a black line, interrupted only where the spiracles 
(white, outlined with black) were placed upon it ; 
immediately beneath the spiracles the contrast of 
whitish-yellow deepened a little by degrees into a pale 
yellowish-green; which was the colour of the belly and 
legs ; these last were tipped with brownish ; the head 
was brownish-green, freckled with darker ; the second 
segment was not very different in texture from the 
rest of the body ; it was in most examples edged in 
front with very dark brown, and the pale lines that 
appeared on it were without any dark edging ; the 
whole brood presented scarcely the least variety, either 
in colouring or detail, but were as constant as possible 
in their uniformity. 

Some of the larvse, which were kept in a flower-pot 
with sand for soil, formed very neat compact cocoons 
of silk, covered thinly but uniformly with the sand, 
rather more than five-eighths of an inch long, and 
about five- sixteenths broad; probably, in a coarser 
soil, they would have been less regular in outline. 

The pupa was rather short and stout, smooth and 



ANOHOCELIS LITURA. 69 

cylindrical, ending in a short pair of blunt spikes, 
diverging from each other ; the colour a deep reddish- 
brown. (W. B., June, 1872 ; E.M.M., IX, 39, July, 

1872.) 



Dasycampa rubiginea. 
Plate LXXXIV, fig. 2. 

On March 21st, 1868, Mr. Thomas Terry, of Babbi- 
combe, took a female at sallows, and shut her up in a 
glass-topped box about six inches square, putting in for 
her food a little plum-jam. On March 28th he saw two 
eggs had been laid on the box ; on the 30th, three 
more ; on April 1st, two more on the box, and four 
on a sprig of blackthorn which he had supplied. These 
were followed by three or four more, for which I have 
no dates, and were all laid singly, on the underside 
of a leaf, or under any little projection in the box. 
How, after this again, the unhappy moth stuck in the 
jam, and perished miserably with eighty-seven eggs 
in her still unlaid ; how, of the few secured, bad luck 
pursued nearly one-third, either before or just after 
the hatching of the larvae, I will not relate at length ; 
I mention these mishaps only to enhance Mr. Terry's 
liberality in still sparing eggs and larvae to Mr. Buckler 
and myself. 

The larvae were hatched between April 19th and 
23rd ; fed freely on plum-leaves, and not so well on 
sloe, sometimes taking to knot-grass, and became 
full-fed from June 15th to 20th; and the moths 
appeared between September 8th and 20th. 

The egg is unusually large for a Noctua, quite as 
large as that of Xylocampa lithorhiza ; in shape round 
and full above, but rather flattened below ; the sur- 
face is glistening, and ornamented with more than 
thirty slight longitudinal ribs, of which more than 
half terminate before reaching the apex; these ribs 



70 DASYCAMPA RUBIG1NEA. 

are connected by very slight transverse reticulations. 
The colour at first is whitish, faintly tinged with yellow, 
but it soon becomes blotched with brownish-buff, in 
some specimens irregularly, in others more regularly 
with a central spot at the top, and a broad belt round 
the middle, and to the naked eye the egg now appears 
something the colour of a grain of wheat ; after a 
time the blotches turn to puce, and finally the whole 
egg becomes pale purplish. 

The larva at first is of a semi-translucent purplish 
tint, with brown shining head, and the usual dots 
black and distinct, each emitting a long wavy whitish 
hair. The first food eaten is the empty egg-shell, but 
after the larva has begun to eat leaves its colour 
soon becomes greenish. After a few days the colour 
changes to brown, and the hairs show golden in the 
sunshine ; and after another moult the brown becomes 
darker, and the transverse rows of tubercular dots 
show to the naked eye like dark bands. When 
about three-quarters of an inch in length it assumes 
a waxy shining appearance, reminding one of an 
Agrotis, with the head and collar shining black, but 
after the next moult it comes out at first nearly black 
all over ; this nigritude does not, however, last long ; 
in a day or two the skin becomes paler, and from this 
time till it attains the len gth of one and one-eighth inch es 
the description is as follows : — The ground colour 
ochreous-brown, with rather pale dorsal, subdorsal, 
and spiracular lines ; the head dark brown ; a dark 
brown dull plate on second segment, also on tip of the 
anal segment ; the tubercular dots black and very 
distinct, the first dorsal pair of them in each segment 
after the fourth being placed in a blackish-brown 
transversely oval patch, which interrupts the dorsal 
line ; the body thinly covered with very fine silky, 
brown hairs ; in some specimens the oval dorsal 
patches are replaced by pairs of oblong dots, separated 
by the dorsal line. The length of the full-grown 
larva is one and a quarter inches when at rest, but more 



DASYOAMPA RUBIGINEA. 71 

than one and a half when in motion, its powers of 
self-extension or contraction being much greater than 
those of any other Noctua larva with which I am 
acquainted ; the figure stoutest at the twelfth seg- 
ment, and thence tapering regularly to the head, which 
is the smallest segment, and the thirteenth tapering 
rapidly behind, the anal pair of legs being remarkably 
close together; the skin is soft, and each segment swells 
out plump in the middle ; all the tubercles and the 
plate on the thirteenth segment have disappeared, 
and amongst the long fine silky hairs there is now a 
growth of shorter ones. The colour is now purplish- 
brown, glistening in certain positions with a faint 
violet, mealy gloss ; the pulsating dorsal vessel shows 
as an indistinct paler line ; the dark patches down the 
back have become in some instances a thick, clumsy 
X on each segment, in others a pair of curved blotches, 
and there are also pairs of smaller and fainter dots on 
segments two, three, and four, those on four being the 
largest, and of a square form ; the head is intensely 
black ; the region of the back is curiously freckled with 
very fine blackish-brown curved marks, which, how- 
ever, do not touch the X marks, but allow them, as it 
were, to stand out more distinctly ; and in the same 
way the subdorsal and spiracular lines are to be dis- 
tinguished by the absence of these freckles from the 
ground colour, rather than by any decided line of 
another tint ; the spiracles small, black, and shining ; 
the belly paler than the back, and somewhat tinged 
with green ; the hairs are all of a beautiful golden 
brown. The habit of the larva seemed to be to hide 
itself by day, in spite of its silky, Bombyx-like clothing, 
and to feed and move at night ; and I fancy its food, 
when at large, must consist of low plants, rather 
than trees or shrubs, otherwise we should hear of its 
capture. 

The Zoological Record (vol. II, 1865) does indeed 
contain notices, extracted from Berl. Ent. Zeits., 
1865, p. 112, and Stett. Ent. Zeits., 1865, p. 113, of 



72 DASYCAMPA RUBIGINEA. 

its being found in ants' nests, those of Formica 
fuliginosa ; but its voluntary presence in such a situa- 
tion is more than I can comprehend. 

When about to change it spins a thin cocoon on 
the surface of the ground, working in moss or leaves 
above, and bits of earth, etc., below, but still keeping 
it of a tolerably oval form. The pupa is about three- 
quarters of an inch long, moderately stout, cylindrical, 
but a little depressed at the junction of the back of the 
thorax with the abdomen ; from this point the abdomen 
rather swells out in size for about two-thirds of its 
length, and then tapers to a somewhat obtuse point, 
which is armed with a single tiny spike, and attached 
by two or three threads to the lining of the cocoon ; 
the surface is shining; the colour dark purplish- brown. 
(J. H., November 26th, 1868, B.M.M., V, 206, 
January, 1869.) 



XANTH1A CITKAGO. 

Plate LXXXIV, fig. 4. 

On the 9th of May, 1871, I received from Mr. John 
Firth, of Cleckheaton, a larva of this species ; and on 
the 13th of May of the present year, half a dozen 
from Mr. John Harrison, of Barnsley. At this date 
they are about three-quarters of an inch in length, and 
have still to go through the last moult ; for this 
purpose they enclose themselves in loose cocoons, 
forming by drawing together together two leaves with 
silken threads. At the end of May they are full-grown, 
and may be described as follows : — 

Length about an inch, and tolerably plump in pro- 
portion. The head is very slightly narrower than the 
second segment, and still narrower than the third seg- 
ment ; it has the lobes globular, but the first rather 
flattened. Body cylindrical, tapering a very little 
towards the head ; segmental divisions tolerably dis- 
tinct, but not deeply cut ; skin soft and smooth. 



XANTHIA CITBAG0. 73 

Ground colour of the dorsal surface dark olive-grey ; 
head smooth and shining, the upper part pale brown, 
the lower dark sienna-brown. Medio -dorsal line dirty- 
white ; subdorsal lines similar in colour, but narrower 
and less distinct ; spiracular region dull whitish grey. 
On the second segment, just behind the head, is a 
semicircular black mark, divided by the medio-dorsal 
line ; above, and bordering the subdorsal lines, is a 
conspicuous series of longitudinal black marks, having 
the appearance of interrupted black stripes. Trape- 
zoidal dots distinct, white. Spiracles enclosed in a 
black mark, very minute, greyish white. Ventral 
surface and pro-legs uniformly dirty green, the skin 
semi-translucent ; legs black and shining. Shortly 
before spinning up, the ground colour of the dorsal 
surface changes to yellowish brown. Feeds on lime. 
The cocoon is formed by drawing closely together 
several of the growing leaves, and the larva remains 
inside for two or three weeks before assuming the 
pupa state. The moths from my larvas appeared at 
the end of July. (Geo. T. Porritt, November 11, 
1872 ; Ent., VI, 257, December, 1872.) 



Xanthia cerago. 
Plate LXXXIV, fig. 5. 

[Mr. Buckler published his descriptions of the larva 
of this species along with those of the larva of 
X. flavago (silago), under the title of ' Comparative 
Notes on the Larvae of Xanthia cerago and silago,' as 
follows : ] 

Not until the season of 1869 have I had a good 
opportunity of really knowing the difference between 
these two species in the larval state, and for this 
reason : I never till then had both at the same time, 
but only one or two of either at long intervals, so that 
in my recollection they had somehow got to be so 
much alike as not to be known the one from the other. 



74 XANTHIA CERAGO. 

No doubt this confusion had arisen in part from my 
having taken two or three figures at different times of 
solitary examples too far matured ; recent experience 
having demonstrated that when they are full-fed, or 
nearly approaching that condition, their distinctive 
characters have faded away, and their identification is 
then hopeless. I have therefore thought that a 
description of both X. cerago and X. silago may be of 
use to some who, perhaps, like myself, have hitherto 
been unable to distinguish the one larva from the 
other as they chanced to come under notice. 

My sincere thanks are justly due for the kindness 
and liberality I experienced on the 29th of April from 
Dr. F. Buchanan White, of Perth, and on May the 4th 
from Mr. George Baker, of Derby, they having both 
sent me an abundant supply of sallow catkins con- 
taining young larvse of both species ; and I may 
mention that thenceforth these larvae all fed and throve 
well on sallow leaves, and the moths appeared from 
the 30th of July to the 14th of August. 

In both species the body of the larva is cylindrical, 
having the segments plump and deeply defined, and 
tapering a little anteriorly ; the head decidedly smaller 
than the second segment ; the hinder segment tapering 
also, and the anal pro-legs very close together beneath 
its extremity. 

The larva of X cerago has on the upper surface, as 
far as the black spiracles, a ground colour of reddish- 
brown or purplish -brown, and beneath the spiracles a 
much paler tint of the same ; the ventral surface pale 
greyish- violet with a slight tinge of bluish-green on 
the anterior segments; the whole upper surface is 
freckled with dark brown excepting the segmental 
divisions, which, when stretched out, are seen to be 
unfreckled, and of rather a violet tinge. 

The dorsal line, when visible, is pale brownish- 
ochreous, often obscured by the two dark brown lines 
that enclose it, and these often run together in a dark 
brown spot at the beginning of each segment, are lost 



XANTHIA CERAGO. 75 

in the middle, and reappear at the end; for on the 
middle of each segment is a diamond shape of dark 
brown composed of thickly aggregated freckles ; the 
subdorsal is a dark brown freckled line forming the 
upper boundary of a broad side-band of dark freckles, 
extending to the spiracles, which are situated on its 
lower edge ; the subspiracular region, belly and legs, 
are faintly freckled with pale brown ; the head is dark 
brown ; the second segment has a black velvety collar 
or plate rounded behind, on which the subdorsal lines 
appear conspicuously whitish or pale ochreous, with 
sometimes a faint indication of a dorsal line on it ; 
the anal tip is often similarly marked ; the tubercular 
dots are often distinctly visible on the back in three 
pairs on each segment (two pairs being the usual 
allowance) scarcely paler than the ground colour, and 
ringed with dark brown. 

When young, some larvee of this species are much 
darker, with the marks and freckles almost black; 
but as they increase in size they become paler. In 
short, the distinct series of diamond shapes down the 
back and the broad dark band along the sides are 
characters that effectually distinguish this species. 

The larva of X. silago, though of similar size, form, 
and general aspect of colouring, yet, when closely 
scrutinised, presents to view a different design in the 
ornamentation. 

The freckling on the back extends on either side as 
far as the subdorsal region, forming on each segment 
an irregular squarish shape, quite uniform in depth of 
colouring, with the dorsal line only just indicated at 
the segmental divisions ; the subdorsal region forms 
the upper boundary of a very broad stripe of paler 
frechling, followed by a much narrower and still paler 
one, and then a broad one of similar depth of colour 
to the back, but with more of a violet hue ; the rest 
may be described in the same terms used for similar 
parts of the larva of X. cerago. (W. B., February, 
1870 ; E.M.M., VI, 262, April, 1870.) 



76 XANTHIA FLAVAG0. 

Xanthia FLAVAGO. 

Plate LXXXIV, fig. 6. 

[See under X. cerago for Mr. Buckler's ' Comparative 
Notes on the Larvae of Xanthia cerago and silago,' 
published in E.M.M., VI, 262, April, 1870.] 

Xanthia gilvago. 
Plate LXXXV, fig. 1. 

I feel greatly obliged to the Rev. J. Hellins, Mr. 
Albert Jones, and Mr. George Baker, of Derby, for 
their kindness in giving me this season the opportunity 
of figuring and describing the larva of this species, and 
also that of X. ferruginea ; and especially to Mr. Baker 
for his caution that the latter species might be amongst 
the larvae of the former, otherwise I might have kept 
them together and been defeated. 

But the extra trouble of figuring and keeping each 
larva separate has been rewarded, as it has enabled 
me to point out the distinction between two very 
similar larvae that may be easily mistaken for each 
other. The quotation from Guenee in the ' Manual ' 
says of X. gilvago — " larva undescribed, because so 
common " ; a passage I never fully comprehended 
until recently. 

Both species of larvae, obtained from seeds of wych- 
elm, were sent me as X. gilvago, from 6th to 8th of 
June, within a few days or a week of their being full- 
fed, and the perfect insects appeared from August 24th 
to September 5th. 

The larva of X. gilvago, when full-grown, is about 
one inch or an inch and one-eighth in length, rather 
thick and plump behind, tapering a little gradually 
towards the head, and a little just at the anal segment. 



XANTHIA G1LVAG0. 77 

The ground colour above is greyish-brown, having 
a pinkish tinge, darkest on the thoracic segments ; 
the lines similar, but of a paler tint ; head reddish- 
brown ; a blackish-brown plate rounded behind on the 
second segment, through which run the pale dorsal 
and subdorsal lines ; these lines are, however, on the 
third and fourth segments, generally much suffused 
with ground colour, and not always, though sometimes, 
very distinct on the rest of the body. 

The dorsal line is in some entire, and in others 
interrupted in the middle of each segment by suffusion 
of the dark purplish-brown marks it travels through, 
but it is generally distinct at the beginning of each 
segment, being there broadly edged with blackish. 
The purplish-brown mark of each segment on the 
back is in the centre somewhat of a diamond form, 
truncated behind, especially on the eleventh and twelfth 
segments, with the addition of a wedge shape on each 
anterior side united with it, their points close to the 
beginning of each segment, and their broad ends 
forming part of the diamond shape. The subdorsal 
line paler than the ground colour, often suffused at the 
end, but visible at the beginning of each segment, 
being there edged above by a short blackish-brown 
streak, which forms the point of the wedge portion of 
the dark mark of the back. The sides slightly mottled 
with purplish-brown, chiefly about the black spiracles, 
and close beneath them is a pale stripe of yellowish- 
grey, its upper edge still paler ; the belly and legs of a 
similar tint, but a trifle darker. The four tubercular 
pale dots, ringed with dark brown, are situated within 
the dark marks on the back of each segment. This is 
a distinction by which it may be readily identified. 
(W. B., E.M.M., IV, 156, December, 1867.) 



78 XANTHIA FERRUGINEA. 

Xanthia FERRUGINEA. 
Plate LXXXV, fig. 2. 

Though a trifle larger, yet in form and structure 
this larva closely resembles that of X. gilvago, but 
with the following exceptions : 

The general colouring is of a browner tint, some- 
times of an ochreous-brown. 

The series of dark central marks on the back, with 
their dark wedges, assume together more compact 
forms of an urn shape, being attenuated behind, so 
that a constant character appears in the hinder pair of 
tubercular dots being outside the dark urn shapes. 
On referring to figures of this species of 1861 and 
1865, the same characters are apparent, though two 
of them found under common ash varied much in 
colour, one being a grey variety, and the other a 
brighter and more distinctly marked example than any 
of those on wych-elm. (W. B., E.M.M., IV, 180, 
January, 1868.) 



ClRRCEDIA XERAMPEL1NA. 

Plate LXXXV, fig. 3. 

In April, 1866, the Rev. Joseph Greene kindly sent 
me a larva he had found concealed in a chink of an 
ash-trunk ; but as the imago did not appear, its 
identity was not established till the present season. 

On the 22nd of May, 1867, I had the pleasure to 
receive another similar larva, detected in a like situa- 
tion near Leominster by Mr. Thomas Hutchinson, who 
also generously consigned it to me, enabling me to 
secure two figures of it in mature growth. 

When full-fed, it spun a rather small cocoon, covered 
with grains of earth to which a few particles of moss 
adhered ; and the perfect insect came forth on the 5th 
of September. 



OIRRCEDIA XERAMPELINA. 79 

The first larva was found before the ash trees had 
put forth blossoms, and ash buds were given it for 
food, into which the larva ate round holes, burrowed, 
and devoured the interiors. 

The second and full-grown larva came after the 
ash had assumed its foliage, and it partook of young 
shoots for a few days before spinning. The larva had 
then attained nearly one inch and a quarter in length, 
and was rather broad in proportion, the head rather 
smaller than the next segment. Viewed sideways, it 
appeared tapering gradually towards the head, and 
from the eleventh segment to the anal extremity ; but 
seen on the back, it looked of almost uniform width, 
excepting just at each end The divisions deeply cut, 
giving each segment a plump appearance. 

The larva, when two-thirds grown, is very sugges- 
tive of lichen, and of a lichen-feeder. Its head is 
shining dark grey-brown, mottled and streaked with 
darker blackish-brown ; a black shining plate on the 
second segment having two rather broad angulated 
whitish stripes. The back and sides are brownish- 
grey, delicately mottled with a darker tint of the same. 

The dorsal stripe is dirty whitish, edged with black, 
and is on the third and fourth segments continuous, 
but contracted and expanded, while on the others it is 
only visible, and expanded towards the end of each 
segment, excepting the twelfth and thirteenth, where it 
is widened into a broad blotch, extending to the sub- 
dorsal region, and strongly margined with black ; 
from its base on the middle segments is a brownish- 
grey streak on either side, curved obliquely forward to 
the middle of the subdorsal line. The tubercular dots 
whitish, delicately ringed with black, and with minute 
black centres, each with a short and very fine hair. 

The subdorsal line is a very thin thread of dirty 
whitish, delicately and interruptedly edged with black ; 
the space between it and the spiracular region is 
greyish-brown, darker than the back, and having a 
paler blotch in the middle of each segment. 



80 CIRR(EDIA XERAMPELINA. 

The spiracular stripe is a pale freckled brownish- 
grey, edged above by a black line; the spiracles dirty 
whitish, outlined with grey, and inconspicuous. The 
belly and legs a slightly mottled greenish-grey. 

When full-grown, the broad dorsal stripe of dirty 
whitish appears faintly continuous, and widest in the 
middle of each segment, and margined at each seg- 
mental division before and behind with stout thick 
black curves. 

On the anal extremity a thick cruciform black 
mark. 

Its perfect assimilation to the crevices in the bark 
of ash trees accounts partly for its remaining so long 
undiscovered, or at least undescribed, in this country. 
(W. B., E.M.M., IV, 136, November, 1867.) 



Tethea retdsa. 
Plate LXXXV, fig. 5. 

I believe this species is not yet considered to be 
common, so perhaps it may not be uninteresting to 
state that we take it here [Exeter] in some seasons, by 
searching for the larvaB in the folded leaves and shoots 
of various kinds of sallows, about the end of May and 
beginning of June. At that time of the year, indeed, 
numbers of common larvse are to be found in this 
way, such as Tmniocampa stabilis, T. cruda, Orthosia 
lota, Oosmia trapezina, Epunda viminalis, occasionally 
Oerastis vaccinii and G. spadicea (these two probably 
hiding in leaves spun together by other species), and 
always Hypsipetes elutaria and Cheimatobia brumata, 
as well as some of the Tortrices ; but the only larva 
with which T. return is likely to be confounded is 
that of E. viminalis ; I have therefore described the 
former rather fully, and pointed out the characters 
which distinguish it from the latter. 

Tethea retusa, when full-grown, is about an inch in 
length, tapering slightly towards each end, and flat 



TBTHBA RETUSA. 81 

beneath ; the head small, rounded, and rather flat ; 
shin very delicate and thin, so that the lines on it 
show almost as if ribbed or raised, and the internal 
organs partially show through it. The colour is a pale 
dull green, with a yellow tinge towards the head and 
tail ; a broad dorsal stripe, a fine subdorsal, and an 
undulating spiracular line, all whitish in colour; the 
spiracles not visible ; the head generally yellowish- 
green, but sometimes very dark blackish-brown; occa- 
sionally also there is a dark collar on the second seg- 
ment ; young larvse sometimes have the usual dots, 
very visible and black, but lose all trace of them as 
they grow bigger. 

The characters printed above in italics distin- 
guish this larva from that of Epunda viminalis, which 
has a much firmer texture of skin, a thicker and more 
corneous head (which is pale grey with the lobes out- 
lined in black) ; the lines more sharply defined, and 
two pairs of whitish dots on the back of each segment. 
(J. H., October 9, 1867; E.M.M., IV, 180, January, 
1868.) 



ElJPERIA FULVAGO. 

Plate LXXXVI, fig. 1. 

For many years Sherwood Forest in Nottingham- 
shire was considered the only British locality where 
this pretty species could be taken in numbers. There 
it used to be, and I suppose still is, a most abundant 
moth. Odd specimens were very occasionally taken in 
other and very widely separated localities in England 
and Scotland, but it was not until 1888, when Mr. J. 
N. Young, ofRotherham, and his friends, took twenty- 
six specimens in Wad worth Wood, near Doncaster, 
that another locality was found where it could be relied 
on to occur in some plenty, as the two seasons which 
have elapsed since then have sufficiently proved. 

vol. v. 6 



82 EUPERIA FULVAGO. 

By previous arrangement, I met Mr. Young in Wad- 
worth Wood on the 21st of June, 1890, and found 
that by the time I arrived he had already made a good 
haul of Euperia fulvago larvae, along with many other 
species. He had gone the previous evening to " sugar," 
remained in the wood all night, and commenced to 
beat for larvae at daybreak. We set to work together 
at the birches, and I had before long the satisfaction 
of finding that the " early bird " had not got quite 
all ''the worms;' for by the time I discontinued 
beating, a fair number had found their way into my 
boxes. We were, however, clearly a week too late, 
as although a few larvae were small, by far the greater 
part were quite full-fed, and evidently most had 
already left the trees. 

The full-grown larva is about an inch and a half 
in length, and of moderate bulk in proportion ; head 
very slightly narrower than the second segment, the 
lobes round and polished ; body cylindrical, and of 
nearly uniform width throughout ; skin soft, and so 
translucent that the pulsations of the internal vessels 
can be distinctly seen through it. 

Ground colour pale dingy green, with the appear- 
ance of having been dusted over with a white powder ; 
head pale yellow, the mandibles black, and on each 
side, a little above the mandibles, and towards the 
outside, is a small red spot ; medio-dorsal and sub- 
dorsal liDes white ; the spiracular stripe is composed 
of two waved lines, also white ; this stripe encloses the 
spiracles, which are white, edged all round with 
purple; segmental divisions yellow, this colour showing 
especially when the larva is crawling. 

Ventral area and pro-legs uniformly pale dingy 
green, the anterior legs still paler, and slightly tipped 
with black. 

The young larvae found did not appear to differ 
either in shape or colouring from the adult specimens. 

Feeds on birch, and rests coiled round in the middle 
of a leaf with the head close to the other extremitv, just 



EUPERIA FULVAGO. 83 

as does the larva of Cymatophora flavicomis when 
full-grown. 

The larvse all pupated below the surface of the earth 
in their cage, and the moths emerged from July 25th 
to August 4th. (G. T. Porritt, April, 1891 ; E.M.M., 
XXVII, 121, May, 1891.) 



DlOYOLA Oo. 

Plate LXXXVI, fig. 2. 

The furious salt gale of the 29th of April, 1882, 
damaged the trees in most localities to such an extent 
that it was a hopeless task to go beating for the larvae 
usually taken by that process in May ; but of course, 
there were some trees so situated as to be guarded by 
high ground from the stroke of the blast, and from 
one such oak tree my friend, the He v. John Hellins, 
was fortunate enough to obtain the larva of this 
species. 

As far as we know, neither the larva nor the imago 
had been taken in Devonshire before, so it is an addition 
to the local fauna of that county. 

When first taken, 1 9th of May, it was not come to 
full growth, being less than an inch in length, and 
was preparing for a moult, so that its appearance 
puzzled Mr. Hellins, who sent it to me as perhaps the 
young stage of some Tseniocampa, which he had for- 
gotten, and in this, without closely examining more 
than the first two segments protruding from some 
leaves and portending a moult, I acquiesced ; however, 
an examination of the larva after the completion of 
its moult, and further correspondence, soon convinced 
me it was no Tseniocamjpa, and reference to a copy 
which I had by me of Hiibner's figure of D. oo showed 
me at once that I had at last obtained an example of 
that desideratum. 

The moult took place during night or early in the 
morning of May 22nd, and in course of that morning 



84 DIOYCLA 00. 

I saw the larva feeding well as it lay quite openly 
exposed to view, though afterwards it kept itself more 
secluded, both by day and night, amongst the leaves 
of the oak spray provided for it, but, so far as I could 
see, without spinning them together, and it became 
full-grown by the 27th, and went to earth on the 29th ; 
and the imago, a male, appeared on the 8th of July. 

Very soon after the moult it was nearly an inch 
long, and when full-grown and stretched out, one inch 
and four and a half lines in length, very cylindrical, 
the head being only a trifle less than the second 
segment, and the thirteenth very little tapered; the 
head full and rounded, jet-black and glossy ; the 
ground-colouring of the body was also jet-black above 
as far as the anal flap, which was brown, and dark 
brown on the belly ; the plate on the second segment 
quite as glossy as the head ; the rest of the smooth skin 
had but a very slight gloss ; a pure white dorsal stripe 
began rather narrow on the plate and thoracic seg- 
ments, and from thence much broader on all the others, 
but on each of them was contracted in the middle and 
divided so as to form a series of long elliptical marks ; 
the very thin subdorsal line of pure white began with 
two isolated spots on the side margin of the neck 
plate, and thence ran uninterrupted to the end of the 
anal flap ; the broad spiracular stripe of rather 
yellowish- white was on the third and fourth segments 
interrupted deeply on its upper margin, and from them 
passed along of uniform breadth as far as the anal 
legs, and having a thin line of dark grey running 
through the middle, on which were the spiracles of 
red-brown finely outlined with black ; the very small 
tubercular dots of pure white ranged in threes on 
either side of the back, and singly above and below 
the spiracular region on each segment; the anterior 
legs were black ; the ventral and anal legs brownish- 
green and semi-pellucid ; the thoracic wrinkles and 
segmental divisions showed black upon the white stripes 
and lines. 



DIOYOLA 00. 85 

Just before the larva was allowed to enter the earth 
it had lost its perfect black ground on the body, which 
had become somewhat of a brownish-green. 

The cocood, found about three-quarters of an inch 
below the surface of the earth, was of oblong shape, 
the diameters eleven lines by eight ; it was composed 
of earthy particles lightly held together with a few 
threads, and though smooth inside, was without any 
perceptible lining of silk. 

The pupa skin was seven lines long, very stout in 
proportion across the thorax ; the abdominal segments 
tapered to the rounded tip furnished with two very 
fine straight and pointed spines, smooth in all its 
parts ; of a dark warm brown colour and glossy. 
(W.B., 6th December, 1882; E.M.M., XIX, 203, 
February, 1883.) 



COSMIA DIFFINIS. 

Plate LXXXVI, fig. 4. 

Two full-grown larvas received from Mr. Henry 
Bartlett, feeding on elm, June 8th, 1875. When at 
rest they lay curved round on the under side of a leaf. 
One, the most mature, measured in length one and 
three-eighths, the other one and one-eighth of an inch ; 
slender in proportion, cylindrical, tapering very slightly 
just near each extremity. The head full and rounded 
in size, a trifle less than the second segment ; all the 
legs well developed ; skin rather wrinkled transversely. 
In colour the head is very dark rich brown, becoming 
nearly black on the lower portions ; antennal papillae 
pale green at the base. The colour of the body pale 
green, but not bright, rather inclining to glaucous in 
front and a trifle yellower behind. The largest larva 
was rather yellower green, and paler than the other. 
The dorsal line is of a whitish-buff tint or pale buff ; 
the subdorsal line whitish and ragged in character, 
finely edged with darkish bluish-green, especially 



86 COSMIA DIFFINIS. 

above; the subspiracular stripe light sulphur-yellow ; 
the belly arid veutral legs rather paler green than the 
back ; the tubercular dots whitish-buff, with minute 
blackish centre ; the spiracles dark brownish-red, finely 
outlined with black ; the hairs of all the dots exceed- 
ingly fine and soft. These larvae disliked being exposed, 
and were only quiet when they could get on the under 
side of a leaf. The anterior legs black on their outer 
surfaces, or else entirely, and shining. The surface 
of the second segment shining. One larva died, and 
one spun up between two elm leaves in a thin silken 
cocoon scarcely to be so called. The pupa rather over 
half an inch long, thick and stumpy in figure, rather 
rounded in character anteriorly, and tapering suddenly 
to the anal tip, which ends in two curly-topped spines, 
which are fixed or held fast in a rather dense patch of 
silk spun on the leaf in the cavity or rounded-over 
chamber formed by spinning the leaves together ; the 
chamber is not otherwise lined; the surface of the 
pupa appears of a violet tint and dull from being 
covered with a bloom or dust. The moth emerged on 
the 1st of August. (W. B., 1875, Note Book II, 194, 
199.) 



COSMIA ARFINIS. 

Plate LXXXVI, fig. 5. 

On the 5th June, 1886, I received three larvae of 
this species from the Rev. G. H. Raynor, of Cambridge. 
They were feeding on elm, and two days later I de- 
scribed them as follows : 

Length rather over an inch, and of average propor- 
tionate bulk ; head glossy, the lobes rounded, about the 
same width as the second, but narrower than the third 
and following segments ; body cylindrical, but has an 
uneven appearance, owing to the clearly-cut segmental 
divisions ; it tapers from the fifth segment to the head, 
and the thirteenth segment shelves off abruptly from 



COSMIA AFFIN1S. 



87 



above, and appears much narrower than those preceding 
it; skin soft, and sufficiently transparent for the 
working of the internal organs to be seen through it. 
Ground colour bright pale green, the head with a 
slight yellow tinge ; dorsal stripe clear white, as are 
also the narrower subdorsal stripes ; spiracular stripes 
also white, but having a faint yellowish tinge which is 
wanting in the other stripes, and above them, in one 
of the specimens, is an irregularly defined stripe of 
dark green, which, on the second, third, and fourth 
segments, takes the form of black streaks ; the large 
round spiracles are white, enclosing an intensely black 
spot, and immediately over, but touching each spiracle, 
is another considerably smaller white spot, which also 
encloses a minute but equally black dot ; the rather 
small tubercular spots are white. Ventral surface and 
pro-legs uniformly light green ; the anterior legs on the 
outside are black, ringed with whitish. 

In a few days the larvse spun rather loose cocoons 
under the leaves or moss at the bottom of their cage, 
and two moths emerged on July 1 9th and 22nd respec- 
tively. (G. T. Porritt, May 11th, 1889 ; E.M.M., XXV, 
298,'June, 1889.) 

The following list of parasites, bred from the larvse 
or pupae of the species included in the present volume, 
has been kindly prepared by Mr. G. C. Bignell, F.E.S. 
— E. McL. 



Host. 



Agrotis exclamationis 

„ tritici 

„ agathina 

„ porphyrea 



Paeasite. 



By whom bred. 



Ambly teles Panzeri, Wesmael ... 
Mesoleptus cingulatus, Graven- 

horst 

Rhogas dimidiatus, Spinola 

Meteorus leviventris, Wesmael... 
Limneria ruficincta, Graven- 

horst 

Rhogas circumscriptus, Nees 

Meteorus pulchricornis, Wesmael 



W. Buckler. 
R. South. 

J. Hellins. 

G. 0. Bignell 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 
J. H. Wood. 



88 



PARASITES. 



Host. 



Agrotis praicox 



,, Ashworthi 
Triphwna fimbria 



orbona 



„ pronuba 

Noctua plecta 

„ triangulum 



brunnea 



Paeasite. 



„ f estiva 

„ neglecta , 

„ xanthographa 
Trachea piniperda . . 



Ophion luteus, Linne 

Apanteles ruficrus, Haliday 

„ spurius, Wesmael... < 

„ difficilis,'Nees 

Amblyteles armatorius, Forster 
Ichneumon primatorius, Forster 
Ichneumon gracilentus, Wesmael 

„ primatorius, Forster 

Amblyteles notatorius, Fabricius 
Campoplex mixtus, Gravenhorst 
Lissonota sulphurifera, Graven 
horst 

Apanteles fulvipes, Haliday 

Amblyteles armatorius, Forster 
Apanteles callidus, Haliday 

,, fulvipes, Haliday 

Amblyteles armatorius, Forster 
Cryptus obscurus, Gravenhorst 
Limneria Brischkei, Bridgman . 
*Mesochorus formosus, Bridgman 
Macrocentrus collaris, Spinola.. 
Ichneumon multiannulatus, Gra 

venhorst 
Ichneumon leucomelas, Gmelin 
Amblyteles mar gineguttatus, Gra- 
venhorst 
Phytodietus coryphseus, Graven 

horst 
Meteorus luridus, Ruthe 



By whom bred. 



Tmniocampa gothica. 



Ichneumon gracilentus, Wesmael 
Rhogas circumscriptus, Nees . . . 

Apanteles fulvipes, Haliday 

Henicospilus ramidulus, Linne . 
Anomalon xanthopus, Schrank . . . 
Campoplex rugulosus, Forster 
Banchus moniliatus, Graven- 
horst 
Anomalon arquatum, Graven- 
horst 

instabilis Microplitis vidua, Ruthe 

populeti . Cryptus obscurus, Gravenhorst.. 

Ophion luteus, Linne 

Campoplex pugillator, Linne ... 
,, confusus, Forster ... 

„ ebeninus, Graven- 

horst 



* Hyperparasitc on M. collaris. 



Bignell. 
G. T. Porritt. 

Porritt, 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 
0. S. Gregson. 

Gregson. 
Mrs. Norgate. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

J. M. Young. 

South. 

Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 
E. A. Butler. 
J. Sang. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 

Bignell. 
Bignell. 

T. R. Billups. 

Mrs. 

Hutchinson. 

B. A. Bower. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

F. Norgate. 

Bridgman. 

Norgate. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

Harwood. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

Mrs. 

Hutchinson. 



PAKASITES. 



89 



Host. 



Tseniocampa populeti 



stabilis. 



gracilis 



mimosa 



cruda .. 



Orthosia ypsilon , 

,, lota 

Cerastis spadicea 

Scopelosoma satellitia 
Xanthia citrago 

Tethea retusa 

Cosmia trapezina 



Paeasite. 



Cryptopimpla = Phytodietus 

plantarius, Gravenhorst 

Exorista vulgaris, Fallen 

Amhly teles alticola, Gravenhorst 

*Limneria Kriechbaumeri, Bridg- 

man 

„ interrupta, Holmgren 

■fMesochorus strenuus, Holmgren 

Rhogas circumscriptus, Nees . 

Apanteles solitarius, Ratzeburg 

„ formosus, Wesmael . . . 

Meteorus pulchricornis, Wesmael 

Microplitis mediana, Ratzeburg 

Exorista vulgaris, Fallen 

„ lota, Meigen 

Limneria Kreichbaumeri,l$ridg- 

man 
Agrypon Jlaveolatum, Graven- 
horst 
Apanteles solitarius, Ratzeburg 
XMicroplitis tuberculifera, Wes- 
mael 
Cryptus obscurus, Gravenhorst 

Meteorus unieolor, Wesmael . j 

Ophion obscurum, Fabricius . . . 

Perilitus unieolor, Wesmael 

Microplitis mediator, Haliday . . . 

Meteorus ictericus, Nees 

Campoplex nobilitatus, Holm- 
gren 

Apanteles sericeus, Nees 

„ nothus, Reinhard 

Meteorus unieolor, Wesmael 

,, deceptor, Wesmael 

Paniscus virgatus, Fourcroy 

Meteorus pulchricornis, Wesmael 



By whom bred. 



Harwood. 

Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 

Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 
C. W. Dale. 
Bignell. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 
Bignell. 

T.A.Marshall. 
R.M.Sotheby, 
Butler. 
Harwood. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Hellins. 
Harwood. 

Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 
South. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 



* Cocoon egg-shaped, brown with a white central band, very slightly 
suspended by a single thread from a leaf, falls to the ground in a few 
days, has the power to bound like a ball, sometimes covering a distance 
of from three to four feet ; the object, no doubt, is to find a resting- 
place between fallen leaves or among stones. 

f Hyperparasite on Limneria Kriechbaumeri. 

X Singly from larva not half grown. 



VOL. V. 



90 



INDEX. 



Affinis, Cosmia 
Alpina, Pachnobia . 
Aquilina, Agrotis . 

Bella, Noctua 

Cerago, Xanthia . 

Cinerea, Agrotis . 

Citrago, Xanthia . 
Conflua, Noctua 

Corticea, Agrotis . 
Cruda, Taeniocampa 

Cursoria, Agrotis . 

Dahlii, Noctua 
Diffinis, Cosmia 
Ditrapezium, Noctua 

Exclamationis, Agrotis 

Ferruginea, Xanthia 
Flavago, Xanthia . 
Fulvago, Euperia . 

Gilvago, Xanthia . 
Gothicina, "Tseniocampa 
Gracilis, TsBniocanipa 



PAGE 




PAGE 


• 86 


Leucographa, Taaniocampa . 54 


. 48 


Litura, Anchocelis . 


. 66 


. 20 


Lunigera, Agrotis . 


. 3 




Lunosa, Anchocelis 


. 65 


. 40 




- 




Nigricans, Agrotis 


. 19 


. .73 
. 12 


Obelisca, Agrotis . 


. 21 


. 72 


Oo. Dicycla . 


. 83 


. 34 


Opima, Taeniocampa 


. 54 


. 9 


Orbona, Triphaena . 


. 28 


. 58 
. 17 


Pronuba, Triphaina 


. 29 


Puta, Agrotis . 


. 1 


. . 37 


Ravida, Agrotis 


. 22 


. 85 


Retusa, Tethea 


. 80 


. 32 


Rubiginea, Dasycampa 


. 69 


7 


Rufina, Anchocelis 


. 62 




Silago, Xanthia 


. 76 


. 78 


Sobrina, Noctua 


. 45 


. 76 


Subsequa, Triphsena 


. 25 


. 81 


Suspecta, Orthosia. 


. 59 


. 76 


Umbrosa, Noctua . 


. 41 


. 53 






. 57 


Xerampelina, Cirroedia 


. 78 



PRINTED BY ADLARD AND SON, 
BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE, E.C., AND 20, HANOVER SQUARE, W. 



PLATE LXX. 

RlJSINA TENEBEOSA. 

1, la, lb, 1 c, larvae after last moult, reared from 
eggs on lettuce, knot-grass, dock, plantain, vetch, &c, 
October 17th, 1863. 

Agrotis valligera. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvse after last moult ; on Galium and 
chick weed, May 11th, 1861 ; under ragwort, July 4th, 
1860; imago August 20th, 1860. 

Agrotis puta. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, reared from eggs on lettuce and root 
of garden carrot; figured October 21st and November 
8th, 1867 ; full grown December 24th, 1867. 

See pp. 1 — 3. 

Agrotis suffusa. 

4, 4 a, 4b, 4 c, larvae after last moult ; at mangold- 
wurzel, June 22nd; imago July 26th, 1870. 

Agrotis saucia. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, reared from eggs laid September 30th, 
hatched October 4th, 1865 ; 5 a figured November 
13th; 5, December 2nd; 5 b, December 9th; 5 c, 
December 18th ; fed on dock and narrow-leaved 
plantain ; moths out end of June, 1866. 



Plate LXX.. 




F.C.Moore lith 



West,I s lewma,'n imp. 



Plate LXXI. 




"West.NewmsLii imp. 



F.C.Moore litk. 



PLATE LXXI. 

Agrotis SEGETUM. 

1, la, lb, larvse after last moult; 1 dug up in garden March 6th, 
1859, imago emerged June 18th ; 1 a from Wakefield, under turnip and 
dock, April 8th, 1869, imago emerged June 29th ; 1 b fed on plantain, 
May 23rd, 1861, imago emerged July. 

Agrotis lunigera. 

2, 2 a, 2 b ; 2 a found under marine goosefoot and grasses near 
Emsworth, October 9th, 1877 ; 2, figured September 8th, and 2 b, 
figured November 4th, 1866, are different stages of the same larva fed 
on knot-grass. 

See pp. 3—7. 

Agrotis exclamationis. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, larvse after last moult ; 3, on grass, lettuce, and chick- 
weed, larva figured April 26th, 1860, imago emerged July 14th ; 3 a, 
under chickweed, October 11th, 1873 ; 3 b, from Wakefield, at turnip 
and other roots, April 5th, imago emerging July 7th, 1869. 

See pp. 7—9. 

Agrotis corticea. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, larvae after last moult, reared from the egg on goosefoot ; 
4 and 4& figured October 4th, 1870, 4 a, on April 29th, 1871, imago 
emerging June 27th. 

See pp. 9—12. 

Agrotis cinerea. 

5, 5 a, larvse after last moult. 

See pp. 12—16. 

Agrotis rip^e. 

6, 6 a, 6 b, larvse after last moult, on Cynoglosswm officinale. 

Agrotis cursoria. 

7, 7 a, 7 b, 7 c, larvse on Aira prsecox and other small seaside grasses, 
Jane 8th, 1861, imagos emerging July 29th ; and on Arenaria peploides, 
Viola Curtisii, etc., June 17th to 24th, 1870, imagos emerging August 
1st to 3rd, 1870. 

See pp. 17, 18. 



PLATE LXXII. 

Agrotis nigricans. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, larvae after last moult ; 1 and 1 c from 
Matching Hall, Essex, on clover, May 15th, imago 
emerged July 20th, 1865 ; 1 b figured May 30th, 
imago emerged July 27th, 1872; la from Suffolk, 
four larvae under narrow-leaved plantain, chickweed, 
and clover, May 15th, imago emerged July 15th, 1865. 

See pp. 19, 20. 

Agrotis tritici. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, larvae after last moult ; 2 figured 
June 28th, 1872; 2 a, on Galium, figured May 18th, 
imago emerged August 9th, 1861 ; 2c on yarrow, 
May 3rd, imago emerged August, 1861. 

Agrotis aquilina. 

3, larva after last moult, figured May 15th, one of 
three larvae on clover and plantain, chickweed, etc., 
imago emerged July 24th to 27th, 1865. 

See pp. 20, 21. 

Agrotis obelisoa. 

4, 4 a } larvae after last moult, on Helianthemum 
vulgare, figured June 6th, imago emerged August 10th, 
1870. 

See pp. 21, 22. 

Agrotis agathina. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, larvae after last moult, feeding on 
heather, May 25th, 1861, June 10th and 18th, 1869, 
and May 26th, 1874. 



Plate LXXEL 




1 OL 





F.C.Moore lath. 



VV.BUCKLH.KcteL. 



Vfeet-TiJ&wman imp 



Plate LXXLL' 




West Newman map. 



F.C.Moore litix. 



W.'BUCKLil'-i'R dUl. 



PLATE LXXIII. 

Agrotis porphyrea. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, 1 d, larvaB after last moult; 1 on 
fine grass and heath, figured April 13th, 1873; la, 
February 27th, 1868; 1 c, February 17th, and Id, 
March 19th, 1862. 

Agrotis precox. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2 d, larvse after last moult ; on fine 
marine grass and dwarf sallow, eating also weeping 
willow, June 8th, 1861, imago emerging August 8th; 
on osier, willow, sallow, June 21st, imagos emerging 
July 31st to August 12th, 1864; and one on osier, 
June 10th, imago emerging July 29th, 1872. 

Agrotis ravida. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvse after last moult ; at roots of 
dandelion and thistle, eating the leaves of dandelion, 
May 6th, 8th, and 18th, imagos emerging July 8th, 
1865. 

See pp. 22—25. 

Agrotis lucernea. 

4, 4 a, larvae after last moult ; on lesser saxifrage, 
oxlip, and chickweed, April 25th and May 1st, imago 
emerging July 15th, 1862 ; and on Sedum acre, April 
5th, imago emerging July 9th, 1867. 

Agrotis Ashworthii. 

5, 5 a, larvae after last moult ; fed on sallow and 
catkins, heather, and other small wild hill plants, 
May 2nd, 1862. 



PLATE LXXIV. 

TRIPH2KNA IANTHINA. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, larvae after last moult ; 1 a on black- 
thorn, May 12th, 1860 ; 1 b figured March 27th, 1875, 
female imago emerging June 30th, 1875 ; 1 c one of 
two found small on February 27th, eating opening 
buds of elm suckers, fed up on dock, sallow, thorn, 
etc., and imago emerging July 12th, 1872. 

Triph^na fimbria. 

2, 2 <x, 2 b, larvae after last moult ; 2 beaten from 
sallow bloom April 7th, fed on flowers, buds, and 
shoots of sallow, full grown and figured May 12th, 
imago emerged July 20th, 1860; 2 b, fed on sallow 
and dock, figured May 12th, 1875, imago, ? , emerged 
July 7th, 1875. 

Tpjphtena interjeota. 

3, 3 a, 3b 9 larvae after last moult ; 3 on Potentilla 
frag arias trum, May 11th, imago emerged July 18th, 

1861; 3 a figured April 17th, 1868; 3 b feeding on 
grasses, May 21st, 1869. 

TRIPHiENA SUBSEQUA. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae reared from the egg ; 4 
figured November 13th, 4 c, December 7th, and 4 a, 
December 15th, 1871 ; 4 b, March 29th, imago emerged 
June 20th, 1875. 

See pp. 25—28. 

TRIPHiENA ORBONA. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, 5 d, 5 e, larvae in various stages ; 5 
on broom; 5 d, May 13th, 1868 ; 5 b and 5 c feeding 
on sallow and dogwood, imagos emerged July 15th 
to 20th, 1861 ; 5 e on garden thyme, November 16th, 
1864, after hybernation fed up on dock and chickweed, 
full grown April 17th, 1865, imago July 29th, 1865. 

See pp. 28, 29. 



Plate LXXIV: 




F.C.Moore lith 



W. BUCKLER. cLeZ,. 



Plate LXW. 




F.CMoor-elith. 



West, TfevvrrLari- imp . 



W.BUCKLERcieL. 



PLATE LXXV. 

Triph^na pronuba. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c 9 larvae after last moult ; 1 on butter- 
cup, figured October 11th, 1860; 1 a on chickweed, 
dock, plantain, etc., November 19th, 1860; 15, 
October 8th, 1859 ; Icon dock and grass, April 28th, 
1861, imago emerging July 18th. 

See pp. 29—32. 

NOOTUA GLAREOSA. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, larvae after last moult ; 2, 2 b 9 2 c, 
feeding on dock and chickweed, April 5th, 1862; 2 a 
on Galium, dock, and grass, April 30th, 1866. 

NOCTUA DEPUNCTA. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvae in various stages ; on leaves 
and flowers of cowslip and on nettle, May 19th, 1864, 
and May 10th to 22nd, 1865, imagos appearing July 
27th to August 3rd, 1865. 

NOCTUA AUGUR. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae after last moult ; 4, 4 b, 
and 4 c on hawthorn, sallow, etc., April 25th, imago 
appearing June 17th, 1861; 4 a on dock and haw- 
thorn, figured April 22nd, imago, ? , appearing June 
19th, 1876. 

NOCTUA PLEOTA. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, larvae in various stages ; feeding on 
plantain, dock, groundsel, and chickweed ; 5 figured 
October 9th, 1862. 



PLATE LXXVI. 

NOOTUA C-NIGRUM. 

1, 1 a 9 1 b, lc 9 ld 9 larvae in various stages, feeding on 
dock, plantain, chickweed, and groundsel ; 1 a on dock, 
figured April 30th, imago emerged June, 1866 ; 
1 d beaten from low plants, September 18th, 1880. 

NOOTUA DTTRAPEZIUM. 

2, 2 a, 2 b 9 2 c 9 larva3 after last moult ; 2, 2 b 9 2 c, 
feeding on dock, sallow, primrose, bramble, and chick- 
weed, April 28th, imagos emerged July 5th to 12th, 
1862; 2 a found on bramble, ate sallow and dock, 
May 2nd, imago emerged July 5th, 1868. 

See pp. 32—34. 

NOOTUA TRIANGULUM. 

4, 4 a 9 4 b 9 4 c 9 larvse in various stages of growth, 
on sallow, thorn, etc., April 30th, imago emerged 
June 23rd, 1861 ; and on dock, chickweed, wood- spurge, 
March 13th to 25th, 1862. 

NOCTUA RHOMBOIDEA. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvse in various stages of growth ; 
3 c and 3 a, March 7th, 1871 ; 3 and 3 b on sallow, 
dock, chickweed, primrose, January 11th to February 
8th, imago appearing June 14th, 1862. 

NOOTUA BRUNNEA. 

5, 5 a, 5 b ; on sallow and thorn, April 17th to 25th, 
imagos emerging June 16th to 20th, 1861. 



Plate LXXVI. 




F.C.Moore lath.. 



W.BUCKLERoW, 



West,Newman imp. 



Plate Lzxvrr. 




■F.GMoore lith. . 



W. BUCKLER cLel. 



West, "Newman imp. 



PLATE LXXVII. 

NOCTUA FESTIVA. 

1, 1 a, 1 b 9 1 c, 1 d, larvae in various stages, on haw- 
thorn, bilberry, primrose, dock, and sallow ; 1 a, 
April 30th and May 19th, imago June 5th to 8th, 
1870. 

NOCTUA C0NFLTJA. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2 d, 2 e, 2f, larvse after last moult, 
from eggs sent from Morayshire ; 2 d figured March 
13th, 1871, imago May 14th ; 2/ full fed November 
21st, 1870, imago May 6th, 1871 ; the others figured 
March 14th, April 10th and 13th, 1871, imagos 
May 23rd to June 19th, 1871. 

See pp. 34—36. 

Noctua Dahlii. 

3, 3 <x, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, 3 e, larvas after last moult, 
reared from eggs November 22nd to 30th, 1868, and 
April 17th, 1869, on dock, imagos appearing January 
19th to April 29th, and from June 4th to 29th, 1869 ; 
3 e found small under a dead leaf, reared to full 
growth on dock, and figured June 10th, 1875, imago 
July 21st, 1875. 

See pp. 37—40. 



PLATE LXXVIII. 

NOCTUA BELLA. 

1, 1 a, 1 b 9 1 c, 1 d 9 1 e, larvse after last moult; feeding 
on dock and chickweed, February 21st, 1862, one on 
grass, March 28th, 1862 ; 1 found on grass February 
19th, was figured March 6th, imago appearing 
May 25th, 1865 ; 1 c on heather, afterwards on dock, 
etc., figured March 9th, imago, ? , appearing May 27th, 
1874. 

See pp. 40, 41. 

NOOTUA UMBROSA. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2 d, 2 e>, larvae after last moult, reared 
from the egg, on dock, etc., November 19th to 27th, 
1870, to March 13th, 1871, imagos June 8th to 13th, 
1871. 

See pp. 41 — 45. 

NOOTUA BAJA. 

3,3 a, 3 6, 3 c, 3 d 9 3 e, 3/, 3g, larvse in various 
stages, on sallow and hawthorn; 3 figured April 22nd, 
imago July 4th, 1868 ; 3 a imago July 9th, 1868; 3 d 
figured April 9th, imago July 16th, 1868; 3g figured 
May 18th, 1866 ; 3 b, 3 c figured April 25th to May 
11th, imago July 1st to 18th, 1861. 



Plate LXXVI 





ib 





F.C.Moore litb.. 



W.BUCKLER oUL. 



West .Newman imp. 







Plate LXXDC 





2& 



2 a 












F.CMoorelith. 



W. BUCKLER del. 



West.NewnxaiL imp, 



PLATE LXXIX. 

NOOTUA SOBRINA. 

1, 1 a, lb, 1 c, larvae in various stages ; 1 and 1 b 
from eggs on heather, birch, and sallow ; 1 figured 
November 24th, 1874, natural size; 1 b figured 
December 11th, 1874, magnified. 

See pp. 45 — 48. 

NOOTUA NEGLEOTA. 

2, 2 a, 2b, 2 c, 2 d, larvae in various stages ; 2 a 
from Forres, May 8th, 1876; the others on heath and 
sallow, figured May 25th, 1861, and May 29th, 1862. 

NoCTUA XANTHOGRAPHA. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, 3 e, larvae in various stages; 3 
figured March 10th, 1868 ; 3 a and 3 e, on primrose 
and dock, figured April 12th, imago August 25th, 1860; 
3c and 3d, on grass, figured April 2nd and 15th, 
imagos August 27th and 29th, 1861 ; 3 b on sallow 
and oak, May 11th, imago August 31st, 1868. 



PLATE LXXX. 

Teaohea piniperda. 

1, la, lb, larvse half grown and after last moult, 
on Scotch fir, June 9th, 1865, imago April 19th, 1866. 

Pachnobia alpina. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, larvse in various stages, on bilberry, 
heather tops, crowberry, and Arbutus unedo, from 
T. W. Salvage, figured June 21st, 28th, 29th, and 
July 3rd. 

See pp. 48—52. 

TtENIOOAMPA GOTHIOA. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae after last moult, 3 b slightly mag- 
nified ; about 100 larvae reared in 1858 from eggs laid 
by a $ taken on sallow bloom in April ; when hatched 
they were blue-green with black heads ; full fed 
21st June ; fed entirely on sallow, having refused 
broom, clover, and lilac ; they would eat willow, but 
preferred sallow. 

See pp. 53, 54. 

Tjjniocampa leucographa. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, larvae after last moult, on sallow, June 
6th and 25th, 1861, and June 18th, 1870. 

See p. 54. 

TiENIOCAMPA RUBRICOSA. 

5, 5 a, hb, 5 c, larvae in various stages ; 5 b half 
grown; 5c full grown, May 7th, 1859; the others 
June 19th, 1861, and June 6th, 1868, imagos March 
28th, 1862, and April 4th, 1869. 



Plate LXXX 




FC Moore litk. 



W BUCKLER de& 



West,NewmaxL imp. 



PLATE LXXX. 

Teachea piniperda. 

1, 1 a, lb, larvae half grown and after last moult, 
on Scotch fir, June 9th, 1865, imago April 19th, 1866. 

Pachnobia alpina. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, larvae in various stages, on bilberry, 
heather tops, crowberry, and Arbutus unedo, from 
T. W. Salvage, figured June 21st, 28th, 29th, and 
July 3rd. 

See pp. 48—52. 

Tjsniooampa gothica. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae after last moult, 3 b slightly mag- 
nified ; about 100 larvae reared in 1858 from eggs laid 
by a ? taken on sallow bloom in April ; when hatched 
they were blue-green with black heads ; full fed 
21st June ; fed entirely on sallow, having refused 
broom, clover, and lilac ; they would eat willow, but 
preferred sallow. 

See pp. 53, 54. 

TiENIOOAMPA LEUC0GRAPHA. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, larvae after last moult, on sallow, June 
6th and 25th, 1861, and June 18th, 1870. 

See p. 54. 

T^NIOOAMPA RUBRICOSA. 

5, ha, 5 b, 5 c, larvae in various stages ; 5 b half 
grown; 5c full grown, May 7th, 1859; the others 
June 19th, 1861, and June 6th, 1868, imagos March 
28th, 1862, and April 4th, 1869. 



Plate LXXX 




PC Moore litk. 



W.BUCKLERcW,. 



West,Kewmaja imp. 



Plate LXXZI. 







3a, 




-. A w\ 



3£ 









•J "' 





P.C.Moore lith. 



W. BUCKLER c£eL. 



"WestWe.wmai. imj 



PLATE LXXXI. 

T^NIOCAMPA INSTABILIS. 

1, 1 a 9 1 b 9 larvae in various stages ; on oak, June 1st 
and 21st, 1861 ; 1 a on poplar, June 23rd, 1866, 
imago April 28th, 1867. 

T^NIOOAMPA OPIMA. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, larvae in various stages, on sallow 
and osier, June 14th to 21st, 1867, and June 3rd, 4th, 
and 10th, 1872, imago March 20th to 22nd, 1868. 

See pp. 54 — 57. 

T^NIOOAMPA POPULETI. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae after last moult ; on poplar, June 
9th, 1860, and on aspen, May 31st, 1869 ; imagos 
March 16th and 17th, 1861, and April 8th, 1870. 

T^NIOOAMPA STABILIS. 

4, 4 a, larvae after last moult ; eggs laid March 16th, 
1859, at first green and changing to slate-colour 
when about to hatch; 4 full grown May 17th, 1859, 
fed on sallow ; imago March, 1860 ; 4 a, June 30th, 
1860; imago March 3rd, 1861. 

T^lNIOOAMPA GRACILIS. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, 5 d, larvae in various stages ; 5 on 
Garduus acanthoides, June 24th, 1869, imago April 8th, 
1870 ; ha on sallow, cannibal ; 5c on Lysimachia 
vulgaris, July 4th, 1868 ; 5 d on sallow, July 10th, 
1868, imago April 6th, 1869. 

See p. 57. 

T^NIOCAMPA MINIOSA. 

6, 6 a, 6 b, larvae after last moult, on oak, June 9th 
to 14th, 1862. 



PLATE LXXXIL 

TiENIOCAMPA MUNDA. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, larvse in various stages ; 1,1 a, May 29th 
and June 5th, 1865, on sallow, imago March 30th, 
1866; 1 b on oak, June 11th, 1860. 

T^NIOCAMPA CRUDA. 

2, 2 a, 2b, 2c, 2d, larvae after last moult ; 2 d on 
sallow, May 23rd, 1865, imago April 1st, 1866. 

See pp. 58, 59. 

ORTHOSIA SUSPECTA. 

3, larva on birch and poplar, etc., June 9th, imago 
June 19th, 1871. 

See pp. 59 — 62. 

Orthosia upsilon. 

4,4 a, 4 b, larvse in various stages ; on willow, found 
under the bark, May 27th, imago June 27th, 1861 ; 
4 a June 3rd, imago July 13th, 1864. 

Orthosia lota. 

5, ha, hb, larvas after last moult, on sallow and oak, 
June 15th, 1860, May 22nd and 23rd, 1867, imagos 
October 3rd and 4th, 1867. 

Orthosia macilenta. 

6, larva after last moult, on hawthorn, May 18th, 
1861; 6 a, larva on oak, May 18th, imago September 
14th, 1865. 



PlateLXXXTI. 








F.C.Moore Tith 




W. BUCKLER del 



<6a. 



We 6 1, Newman imp 



Plate LXXXIIL 




'F.C.Moore litk. 



WEUCKLERc^. 



We st,Newmau imp. 



PLATE LXXXIII. 

Anchocelis rufina. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, larvae in various stages ; 1, 1 a, from eggs, reared first on 
elm and then on oak, figured May 18th and June 1st, 1883 ; 1 b on 
oak, May 28th, 1862, imago October 6th, 1862. 

See pp. 62 — 65. 

Anchocelis pistacina. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, larvae in various stages ; 2 a found on Carex, June 24th, 
1863 ; 2 b found on oat-grass, also ate sallow, May 27th, imago Sep- 
tember 19th, 1874 ; 2 c on clover, June 11th, imago October 3rd, 1868. 

Anchocelis lxjnosa. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, larva? in various stages ; 3 b and 3 d on grass, 
March 26th and April 12th, 1862; 3 a, April 24th to 27th, imago 
October, 1865 ; 3 c from eggs hatched October 25th, 1865, figured 
April 30th, 1866, imago October 20th, 1866. 

See pp. 65, 66. 

Anchocelis litura. 

4, 4 a, 4 &, larvae after last moult ; on Ranunculus repens, May 8th and 
24th, 1872; on dock and sallow May 24th, 1866; from eggs, fed on rose 
at first, afterwards on bramble, May 28th, 1870, imagos September 2nd 
to 6th, 1870. 

See pp. 66 — 69. 

Cerastis vaccinii. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, larvae in various stages ; 5 reared from eggs laid by a 
hybernating specimen taken at sallow bloom, April, fed on dock, 
June 29th, imago September, i860; 5 a on oak, June 15th, imago 
September 3rd, 1869; 5 & on oak, July 6th, imago September 30th, 
1861 ; 5 c on clematis, June 10th, imago September, 1864. 

Cerastis spadicea. 

6,6 a, 6 b, larvae after last moult ; 6 on hawthorn, June 25th, imago 
October, 1860; 6 a June 15th, imago October 14th, 1868; 6b one of 
eight reared from the egg on hawthorn, oak, sallow, and chickweed, 
June 26th and 29th, imagos October 11th to 25th, 1867. 



PLATE LXXXIV. 

SCOPELOSOMA SATELLITIA. 

1, larva after last moult, figured May 28th, 1861 ; destroyed alone 
fifty-seven larvae of Tveniocampa populeti in the course of a fortnight. 

Dasycampa rubiginea. 

2, 2 a, larvse after last moult, reared from eggs, fed on sloe and plum, 
figured June 3rd and 5th, imagos appeared September 23rd and 
29th, 1868. 

See pp. 69—72. 

HOPORINA CROCEAGO. 

3, young larva ; 3 a, larva after last moult ; figured June 30th, 1860, 
and June 25th, 1861. 

Xanthia citrago. 

4, 4<a, 4<b, larvse after last moult; 4 on lime, June 6th, 1860; 4a, 

4 b, on lime, May 25th and 26tb, imagos August 29th and 30th, 1869. 

See pp. 72, 73. 

Xanthia cerago. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, larvae after last moult ; 5 in sallow catkins, May 2nd, 
1861 ; 5 a from a batch of six in sallow catkins, and afterwards on 
leaves of sallow, May 8th to 10th, 1869, and twenty in downy Salix 
catkins from Perthshire, afterwards on leaves, May 17th, 1869 ; imagos 
appearing July 31st to August 10th and August 2nd to 13th, 1869 ; 

5 & on seeds of wych elm, May 25th, imago August 3rd, 1861 ; 5 c on 
sallow, June 6th, imago September 5th, 1860. 

See pp. 73—75. 

Xanthia plavago. 

6, 6 a, 6b, 6 c, larvae after last moult; on sallow catkins, May 22nd, 
and on seeds of wych elm, May 25th, imagos August 14th and 1st, 
1861 ; 6 b and 6 c in sallow catkins, May 29th, imago August 30th, 
1867. 

See p. 76. 

Xanthia aurago. 

7, 7 a, larvae after last moult; on buds and leaves of beech, May 5th 
and 19th, imagos September 17th to 26th, 1866. 



Plate LXXXtV, 





«|S 



3 a. 








4? a. 







F!C. Moore lith 



Westi,"Ne7VinsL-n.. imp. 



W.BUCTKLERdeZ. 



Plate LXXXV. 






4?ct 




















F. C.Moore Mb. 






We st, Newman j-xrrp . 



W.BUCKLERciel. 



PLATE LXXXV. 

Xanthia gilvago. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, larvae after last moult ; on seeds of wych 
elm, June 5th and 7th, imagos August 28th and 31st 
and September 5th, 1867. 

See pp. 76, 77. 

Xanthia ferruginea. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2c; 2 figured July 10th, 1860; 2 a on 
seeds of wych elm, figured June 7th, imago August 
24th, 1867 ; 2 b and 2 c found under common elm, from 
dropped seed blossoms, and fed on narrow-leaved plan- 
tain, figured May 10th, imago August 10th, 1865. 

See p. 78. 

OlRRCEDIA XERAMPELINA. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae after last moult ; hides by day in 
chinks of ash bark, ascending at night to eat the 
leaves ; 3 figured on May 22nd, when nearly full fed, 
imago September 5th, 1867. 

See pp. 78—80. 

Tethea subtusa. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae in various stages ; 4 and 4 c 
between leaves of aspen, June 3rd, imago July 16th, 
1864 ; 4 a and 4 b figured June 4th and 5th, imagos 
July 14th and 16th, 1878. 

Tethea ret as a. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, larvae in various stages ; 5 c on long 
narrow-leaved sallow, June 9th, imago August 28th, 
1860 ; 5, 5 a, and 5 b between leaves or in curled-up 
leaves of Salix cinerea, May 25th, imagos July 22nd 
to 27th, 1867. 

See pp. 80, 81. 



Plate LIXXV". 







27> 




4f<x 












E C.Moore lith 






West.Ne^vTTian uj-ro 



W.EUCKLERdcl. 



PLATE LXXXV. 

Xanthia gilvago. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, larvae after last moult ; on seeds of wych 
elm, June 5th and 7th, imagos August 28th and 31st 
and September 5th, 1867. 

See pp. 76, 77. 

Xanthia ferruginea. 

2, 2 a, 2b, 2c; 2 figured July 10th, 1860; 2 a on 
seeds of wych elm, figured June 7th, imago August 
24th, 1867 ; 2 b and 2 c found under common elm, from 
dropped seed blossoms, and fed on narrow-leaved plan- 
tain, figured May 10th, imago August 10th, 1865. 

See p. 78. 

ClRRCEDIA XERAMPELINA. 

3, 3 &, 3 by larvae after last moult ; hides by day in 
chinks of ash bark, ascending at night to eat the 
leaves ; 3 figured on May 22nd, when nearly full fed, 
imago September 5th, 1867. 

See pp. 78—80. 

Tethea subtusa. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae in various stages ; 4 and 4 c 
between leaves of aspen, June 3rd, imago July 16th, 
1864 ; 4 a and 4 b figured June 4th and 5th, imagos 
July 14th and 16th, 1878. 

Tethea retusa. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, larvae in various stages ; 5 c on long 
narrow-leaved sallow, June 9th, imago August 28th, 
1860 ; 5, 5 a, and 5 b between leaves or in curled-up 
leaves of Salix cinerea, May 25th, imagos July 22nd 
to 27th, 1867. 

See pp. 80, 81. 






Plsite LXXIH, 










B~b 






F.C.Moore lith , 



W. BUCKLER diet 



West,l>reMama.n imp. 



PLATE LXXXVI. 

EtJPEEIA FULVAG0. 

1, larva after last moult, on birch, June 21st, 1862. 

See pp. 81—83. 

DlCYCLA OO. 

2, 2 a, larvae on oak, May 23rd to 29th, sent by Rev. 
J. Hellins, imagos July 8th, 1882. 

See pp. 83—85. 

OOSMIA TEAPEZINA. 

3, 3 a, larvae after last moult ; 3 on rose, elm, etc., 
June 24th, imago August 7th, 1869 ; 3 a on oak, 
June 1st, 1861. 

COSMTA DIFFINIS. 

4, 4 a, larvae after last moult, fed on elm, figured 
June 8th, imago emerged August 2nd, 1875. 

See pp. 85, 86. 

COSMIA AFFINIS. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, larvae in various stages ; 5 and 5 a on 
elm, from Rev. J. Hellins, May 11th, 1881 ; 5 b and 5 c 
on elm, June 1st, 1861, and June 8th, 1864, imago 
July 31st, 1864. 

See pp. 86 f 87. 



KAY SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED 1844. 



FOR THE PUBLICATION OF WORKS ON 
NATURAL HISTORY. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION ONE GUINEA. 



LIST 



OF 



COUNCIL, OFFICERS, LOCAL SECRETARIES, 

AND MEMBERS, 



TOGETHER WITH THE 



TITLES OF THE PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY 
CORRECTED TO MAY, 1893. 



Council sifo (©iters flf i|e |kg jteij, 

Elected 16th June, 1892. 



The Rt. Hon. Sir JOHN LUBBOCK, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 



Comtril. 



Prof. Allman, F.R.S. 

Dr. Braithwaite, F.L.S. 

F. M. Campbell, Esq., F.L.S. 

P. Crowley, Esq., F.L.S. 

S. Edwards, Esq., F.L.S. 

H. C. Gatty, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 

J. Hopzinson, Esq., F.L.S. 

Dr. Meiklejohn, F.L.S. 

A. D. Michael, Esq., F.L.S. 

Prof. St. G. Mivart, F.R.S. 

F. P. Pascoe, Esq., F.L.S. 



E. B. Potjlton, Esq., F.R.S. 

Dr. Power, F.L.S. 

Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, F.R.S. 

Dr. S. J. A. Salter, F.R.S. 

B. Woodd Smith, Esq., F.S.A. 

H. T. Stainton, Esq., F.R.S. 

Prof. C. Stewart, P.L.S. 

Capt. C. Tyler, F.L.S. 

J. J. Weir, Esq., F.L.S. 

Lord Walsingham, M.A., F.R.S. 



%xtnmtzx. 

R. McLACHLAN, Esq., F.R.S., 23, Clarendon Road, Lewisham, S.E. 

Ste,etarjj. 



Rev. Prof. THOMAS WILTSHIRE, M.A., F.L.S., 25, Granville Park, 

Lewisham, S.E. 



LIST OF LOCAL SECRETARIES. 



Birmingham ... ... .. W. R. Hughes, Esq. 

South Devon ... .. ... G. C. Bignell, Esq. 

Warrington ... ... ... T. G. Rylands, Esq. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBEBS.* 



Aberdeen, University of. 

Adkin, R., Esq., F.E.S., Wellfield, Lingards road, Lewisham, S.E. 

Adlard, R. E., Esq., Bartholomew close, B.C. 

Alderson, Mrs., Park House, Worksop, Notts. 

Allen, E. G., Esq., 28, Henrietta street, Covent Garden, W.C. 

Allen, E. S., Esq., Shepherds Green, Chislehurst. 

Allman, Professor, F.R.S., <fcc, Ardmore, Parkstone, Poole, Dorset. 

American Institute, New York. 

Anderson, J., Esq., junr., Aire Villa, Chichester. 

Andrews, Arthur, Esq., Newtown House, Blackrock, Dublin. 

Angelin, Professor, Stockholm. 

Argyll, Duke of, F.R.S., Argyll Lodge, Kensington, W. 

Armstrong, Lord, F.R.S., The Minories, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Army and Navy Club, 36, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Ash, Rev. C. D., Saxby Rectory, Barton-on-Humber. 

Asher, Messrs., 13, Bedford street, W.C. 

Ashley, R., Esq., Pinehurst, Basset, Southampton. 

Ashmolean Society, Oxford. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal, 57, Park street, Calcutta (per Messrs. 

Tnibner). 
Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 
Aubrey, Rev. H. Gr. W., Rectory, Hale, Salisbury. 
Auckland Museum. 



Babington, Professor Charles C, M.A., F.R.S., Cambridge. 

Baer, Herr J., Frankfort. 

Bailliere, Messrs., 20, King William street, W.C. 

* The Subscribers are requested to inform the Secretary of any errors or 
omissions in this List, and of any delay in the transmission of the Yearly Volume. 



6 

Balfour, Prof. J. B., F.R.S., Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. 

Baltimore, Peabody Institute. 

Bankes, E. R., Esq.,M.A., F.E.S., The Rectory, Corfe Castle. 

Barker, H. W., Esq., F.E.S., 148, Hollydale road, Queen's road, 
Peckham, S.E. 

Barrett, C. G., Esq., F.E.S., 39, Linden grove, Nunhead, S.E. 

Bastian, Dr. H. C, F.R.S., F.L.S., 8a, Manchester square, W. 

Bath Microscopical Society, care of C. Terry, Esq., 6, Gay street, 
Bath. 

Bazett, Mrs. E. C, F.E.S., Springfield, Reading. 

Becker, Rev. W., Willow Green Cottage, Willow, Newark-on-Trent, 
Notts. 

Belfast Library, Donegall square, Belfast. 

Belfast, Queen's College. 

Berens, A. A., Esq., M.A., 68, Great Cumberland place, Hyde Park, W. 

Bergen, Museum of, Norway. 

Berlin Royal Library. 

Bethune-Baker, G. T., Esq., F.L.S., 16, Clarendon road, Edgbaston, 
Birmingham. 

Bignell, G. C, Esq., F.E.S., Local Secretary, 7, Clarence place, Stone- 
house, Plymouth. 

Binks, Mrs. J., Burton street, Wakefield. 

Bird, Q. W., Esq., The Manor House, West Wickham, Kent, 

Birmingham, Free Library. 

Birmingham, Mason College. 

Birmingham Old Library. 

Blatch, W. G., Esq., F.E.S., Knowle, near Birmingham. 

Blomefield, Rev. L., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 19, Belmont, Bath. 

Bloomfield, Rev. E. N., M.A., F.E.S., Guestling, near Hastings. 

Bootle-cum-Linacre Free Public Library, Liverpool. 

Bostock, E., Esq., Stone, Staffordshire. 

Bostock, F., Esq., jun., Northampton. 

Boston Public Library, U.S.A. 

Bourne, T. W., Esq., Crokerton, Warminster. 

Bower, B. A., Esq., F.E.S., Langley, Eltham Road, Lee, S,E. 

Bowyer, R. W., Esq., Haileybury College, Hertford. 

Brabant, Monsieur E., F.E.S., Chateau de Morenchies, par Cambrai 
(Nord), France. 

Bradford Naturalists' Society, Y.M.C.A. Rooms, Bradford. 

Bradley, R. C., Esq., 10, Digbeth, Birmingham. 

Brady, Gh S., Esq., F.L.S., Mowbray villas, Sunderland, 



Braithwaite, Dr. R., F.L.S., The Ferns, Clapham rise, S.W. 

Briggs, C. A., Esq., F.E.S., 55, Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C. 

Briggs, T. H., Esq., M.A., F.E.S., 55, Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C. 

Bright, P. M., Esq., Roccabruna, Bournemouth. 

Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society, Brighton. 

Bristol Microscopical Society, H. Gummer, Esq., Hon. Treas., 2, Clyde 

Park, Bristol. 
Bristowe, B. A., Esq., Durlstone, Champion hill, S.E. 
British Museum, Printed Book Department, W.C. 
Brockholes, Mrs. J. Fitzherbert, Clifton hill, Garstang, Lancashire. 
Brook, Geo., Esq., F.L.S., The University, Edinburgh. 
Browell, E. M., Esq., Feltham, Middlesex. 
Browne, Dr. Henry, The Gables, Victoria Park, Manchester. 
Buckland, J., Esq., 4, East street, Taunton. 
Buckmaster, Rev. C. J., Hindley Vicarage, Wigan. 
Buckton, G. B., Esq., F.R.S., Weycombe, Haslemere, Surrey. 
Burn, Dr. W. B., Beechwood, Balham road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 
Burney, Rev. H., M.A., Wavendon Rectory, Woburn. 



Cambridge, Rev. 0. P., F.R.S., Bloxworth Rectory, Wareham. 
Cambridge Entomological Society, per W. Turner, Esq., Hon. Sec, 

14, King's Parade, Cambridge. 
Cambridge, University Library. 
Cambridge, University Museum of Zoology. 
Cambridge, Downing College. 
Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College. 
Cambridge, St. Catharine's College. 
Cambridge, Sidney-Sussex College. 
Cambridge, Trinity College. 

Campbell, F. M., Esq., F.L.S., Rose hill, Hoddesdon. 
Canterbury, Philosophical Institute of, care of J. Meeson, Esq., Hon. 

Treas., Christchurch, New Zealand. 
Capper, S. J., Esq., F.L.S., Huyton Park, Huyton, near Liverpool. 
Cardiff Free Library. 
Carlier, Dr. E. W., Physiological Laboratory, New University 

Buildings, Edinburgh. 
Carus, Dr. Victor, Leipsic. 

Cash, W., Esq., F.G.S., F.L.S., F.R.M.S., Halifax, Yorkshire. 
Chapman, E., Esq., Magdalen College, Oxford. 
Chapman, T. A., Esq., M.D„ F.E.S., Firbank, Hereford, 



8 

Chawner, Miss E. F., The Ravens Nest, Lyndhurst, Hants. 

Cheltenham Permanent Library, Cheltenham. 

Cheltenham Natural Science Society. 

Chicago Public Library, Chicago. 

Chichester and West Sussex Natural History Society, per C. T. Halstead, 

Esq., Hon. Treas., Chichester. 
Christiania, University of. 

Christy, W. M., Esq., F.E.S., Watergate, Emsworth, Hants. 
Church, Dr. W. S., 130, Harley Street, W. 
Cincinnati Public Library. 
City of London Entomological Society, Albion Hall, London Wall, 

E.C. 
Clark, J. A., Esq., M.P.S.G.B., L.D.S., F.E.S., 48, The Broadway, 

London Fields, Hackney, N.E. 
Cleland, Professor, 2, The University, Glasgow. 
Cohens und Sohn Herren, 18, Kaiserplatz, Boun. 
Colman, Jeremiah J., Esq., M.P., Carrow House, Norwich. 
Cooper, Colonel E. H., 42, Portman square, W. 
Cooper, Sir Daniel, Bart., 6, De Vere gardens, Kensington Palace, W. 
Corder, Mrs. Edith, 1, Ashbrook terrace, Sunderland. 
Cork, Queen's College, Cork. 
Cornwall, Royal Institution of, Truro. 
Cregoe, J. P., Esq., F.E.S., 9, Coryton terrace, Plymouth. 
Cresswell, Mrs. R., Teignmouth, Devon. 

Crisp, F., Esq., B.A., LL.B., V.P. and Treas. L. S., 6, Old Jewry, E.C. 
Croft, Rev. J., Dalton Vicarage, near Southport. 
Croft, R. Benyon, Esq., R.N., F.L.S., Farnham Hall, Ware, Herts. 
Crowley, Philip, Esq., F.L.S., Waddon House, Croydon, S. 
Cruickshank, Alexander, Esq., LL.D., 20, Rose street, Aberdeen. 
Cutts, J. E. K., Esq., 28, Southampton street, Strand, W.C. 



Daltry, Rev. T. W., M.A., F.L.S., Madeley Vicarage, Newcastle, 

Staffordshire. 
Dawson, W. G., Esq., Plumstead Common road, Plumstead, S.E. 
Decie, Miss A. Prescott, Bockleton Court, Tenbury. 
Devon and Exeter Institution, Exeter. 
Devonshire, Duke of, F.R.S., 78, Piccadilly, W. 
Dickinson, ¥m., Esq., 3, Whitehall place, S.W. 
Dobree, N. F., Esq., Beverley, Yorkshire. 
Dohrn, Dr. Anton, Stazione Zoologica, Naples. 



Doncaster, A., Esq., 36, Strand, W.C. 

Douglas, W. D. R., Esq., F.L.S., Orchardton, Castle Douglas, N.B. 

Downing, J. W., Esq., F.E.S., 59, Lupus street, St. George's square, 

S.W. 
Dowsett, A., Esq., F.E.S., Castle Hill House, Reading. 
Dublin, National Library. 
Dublin Royal College of Science. 
Dublin, Royal College of Surgeons. 
Dublin, Royal Irish Academy. 
Dublin, Trinity College. 
Dublin, Hon. Society of King's Inn. 
Ducie, Earl of, F.R.S., F.G.S., 16, Portman square, W. 
Dunning, J. W., Esq., M.A., F.L.S., 4, Talbot square, Paddington, W. 



East Kent Natural History Society, Canterbury. 

Eastwood, J. E., Esq., F.E.S., Enton Lodge, Witley, Surrey. 

Edinburgh, Library of University of. 

Edinburgh, Museum of Science and Art. 

Edinburgh, Royal College of Physicians. 

Edinburgh, Koyal Society of. 

Edwards, S., Esq., F.L.S., Kidbrooke Lodge, Blackheath, S.E. 

Elisha, Geo., Esq., F.E.S., 122, Shepherdess Walk, City road. 

Ellison, F. E., Esq., 43, Ashley road, Bristol. 

Ellison, S. T., Esq., 2, Balhousie street, Perth, N.B. 

Elphinstone, H. W., Esq., F.L.S., 2, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, 

W.C. 
England, Bank of, Library, London, E.C. 

England, Royal College of Surgeons of, Lincoln's-inn-fields, W.C. 
Essex Field Club, per A. P. Wire, Esq., 1, Seaton villas, Birkbeck 

road, Leytonstone, E. 
Evans, H. A., Esq., United Services College, Westward Ho, Bideford, 

N. Devon. 



Fenn, C, Esq., F.E.S., Eversden House, Burnt Ash Hill, Lee, S.E. 

Ffarington, Miss S. M., Worden Hall, near Preston. 

Fitch, E. A., Esq., F.L.S., Brick House, Maldon, Essex. 

Fitch, Fred., Esq., F.R.G.S., Hadleigh House, Highbury New Park, N. 

Flemyng, Rev. W. W., M.A., Coolfin House, Portlaw, Co. Waterford. 

Fletcher, W. H ? B„ Esq., F.E.S., 6, The Steyne, Worthing, Sussex. 



10 

Flower, Sir W. H., F.R.S., British Museum (Natural History), S.W. 

Foster, C, Esq., Thorpe, Norwich. 

Fraser, F. J., Esq., 16, Furnival Inn, E.C. 

Freeman, F. F., Esq., F.E.S., Abbotsfield, Tavistock, South Devon. 

Friedlander & Son, Messrs., Berlin. 

Fuller, Rev. A., M.A., F.E.S., Pallant, near Chichester. 



Galton, Sir Douglas, F.R.S., 12, Chester street, Grosvenor place, S.W. 

Gardner, J., Esq., F.E.S., 6, Friar terrace, Hartlepool. 

Gatty, C. H., Esq., M.A.,F.L.S., Felbridge place, East Grinstead, Sussex. 

Geological Society, London, W. 

Geological Survey of India, Calcutta, per Messrs. Triibner. 

Gibson, Miss, Hill House, Saffron Walden, Essex. 

Glasgow Natural History Society, 207, Bath street, Glasgow. 

Glasgow, Philosophical Society of. 

Glasgow, University of. 

Godman, F. D., Esq., F.R.S., 10, Chandos street, Cavendish square, 

W., and South Lodge, Horsham. 
Goode, J. F., Esq., 60, Regent place, Birmingham. 
Gordon, Rev. George, LL.D., Braebirnie, by Elgin, N.B. 
Gottingen, University of. 

Green, Rev. J., M.A., F.E.S., Rostrevor, Clifton, Bristol. 
Green, R. Y., Esq., 11, Lovaine crescent, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Grieve, Dr. J., F.R.S.E., F.L.S., care of W. L. Buchanan Esq., 212, 

St. Vincent street, Glasgow. 
Giinther, Dr., F.R.S., British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell 

road, South Kensington, S.W. 



Hackney Microscopical and Natural History Society, per J. A. Clark, 
Esq., Treasurer, 48, The Broadway, London fields, Hackney, N.E. 
Haileybury College, near Hertford. 
Halifax Public Library. 
Hall, A. E., Esq., Norbury, Sheffield. 
Harbottle, A., Esq., 76, Mandle road, South Stockton. 
Harley, Dr. J., F.L.S., 9, Stratford place, W. 
Harmer, Sidney F., Esq., B.Sc, King's College, Cambridge. 
Harrison, F., Esq., Junior United Service Club, Charles street, S.W. 
Harvard College, Cambridge, U.S.A. 



11 

Havers, J. C, Esq., Joyce Grove, Nettlebed, Henley-on-Thames. 

Hawkshaw, J. C, Esq., 33, Great George street, Westminster, S.W. 

Hepburn, Sir T. B., Bart., Smeaton, Preston Kirk, N.B. 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club, Watford. 

Hicks, Dr. John B., F.R.S., 24, George street, Hanover square, W. 

Hilton, James, Esq., 60, Montagu square, W. 

Hinchliff, Miss Katharine M., Worlington House, Instow. 

Hood, Donald W. C, Esq., M.D.Cantab., 43, Queen street, Park 
lane, W. 

Hooker, Sir J. D., C.B., M.D., F.R.S., Sunningdale, Berks. 

Hope, G. P., Esq., Upminster Hall, near Romford. 

Hopkinson, John, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S., The Grange, St. Alban's, 
Herts. 

Horley, W. L., Esq., Stanboroughs, Hoddesdon. 

Houghton, Rev. W., F.L.S., Preston Rectory, Wellington, Salop. 

Hovenden, F., Esq., F.L.S., Glenlea, Thurlow Park, Dulwich, S.E. 

Howden, Dr. J. C, Sunnyside, Montrose. 

Huddersfield Naturalists' Society, S. L. Mosley, Esq., F.E.S., Hon. Sec, 
Beaumont Park, Huddersfield. 

Hughes, W. R., Esq., F.L.S., Local Secretary, Wood House, Hands- 
wood, Birmingham. 

Hull Subscription Library. 

Hutchinson, Miss E., Grantsfield, Kimbolton, Leominster. 

Huxley, The Rt. Hon. Professor T. H., F.E.S., Science Schools, 
South Kensington. 



Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Jenner, Charles, Esq., Easter Duddingsten Lodge, Portobello, Edin- 
burgh. 
Jones, Albert H., Esq., F.E.S., Shrublands, Eltham. 



Kane, W. F. de V., Esq., M.R.I.A., F.E.S., Sloperton Lodge, Kings- 
town, Co. Dublin. 

Keays, F. Lovell, Esq., F.L.S., 26, Charles street, St. James', S.W. 

Kenrick, G. H., Esq., F.E.S., Whetstone, Somerset road, Edgbaston, 
Birmingham. 

Keys, J. H., Esq., 9, Addison road, Sherwell Estate, Plymouth. 



12 

Kilmarnock Library, Kilmarnock. 
King, H. S., Messrs., 65, Cornhill, E.G. 

Laver, H., Esq., F.L.S., Head street, Colchester. 

Lea, Rev. T. S., Tedstone-Delaware Rectory, Whitbourne, Worcester. 

Lee, H., Esq., 22, St. John's grove, Croydon. 

Leeds, Philosophical and Literary Society. 

Leeds Public Library, Leeds. 

Leeds, The Yorkshire College. 

Leicester Free Library, Wellington street, Leicester. 

Leipzig, University of. 

Lemann, F.C., Esq., F.E.S., Blackfriars House, Plymouth. 

Lidstone, W. G., Esq., 79, Union street, Plymouth. 

Lille, University Library. 

Linnean Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W. 

Lister, Arthur, Esq., F.L.S., Leytonstone. 

Liverpool, Athenaeum. 

Liverpool, Free Library. 

Liverpool, Library, Lyceum. 

Liverpool, Medical Institution. 

Liverpool, Microscopical Society. 

Liverpool, Royal Institution. 

Lloyd, A., Esq., F.E.S., The Dome, Bognor, Sussex. 

Longstaff, G. B., Esq., M.D., Highlands, Putney Heath, S.W. 

London Institution, Finsbury circus, E.C. 

London Library, 12, St. James's square, S.W. 

Loven, Professor, Stockholm. 

Lubbock, The Rt. Hon. Sir J., Bart., M.P., F.L.S., F.R.S., President, 

15, Lombard street, E.C. 
Lupton, H., Esq., F.E.S., Lyndhurst, North Grange road, Headingley. 



Makmurdo, W. G., Esq., Alderbrook, Hermon Hill, Wanstead, E. 
Marlborough College Natural History Society, Marlborough. 
McGill, H. J., Esq., Aldenham Grammar School, Elstree, Herts. 
McGregor, Rev. J., West Green, Culross, Dunfermlime, N.B. 
Mcintosh, Prof. W. C, M.D., F.R.S., 2, Abbotsford crescent, St. 

Andrew's, N.B. 
McLachlan, R., Esq., F.R.S., Treasurer, West View, Clarendon road, 

Lewisham. S.E. 



13 

McMillan, W. S., Esq., F.L.S., Brook toad, Maghull, Lancashire. 

Maclagan, Sir Douglas, M.D., F.R.S.E., 28, Heriot row, Edinburgh. 

Machine, M. G., of Lochbuie, Isle of Mull. 

Madras Government Museum, Madras. 

Major, Charles, Esq., Red Lion Wharf, 69, Upper Thames street, E.C. 

Manchester Free Public Library. 

Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. 

Mansel-Pleydell, J. C, Esq., F.L.S., Whatcombe, Blandford. 

Marshall, A. E., Esq., Waldersea, Beckenham. 

Martin, G. M., Esq., Red Hill Lodge, Compton, Wolverhampton. 

Mason, P. B., Esq., F.L.S., Burton-on-Trent. 

Mathew, G. F., Esq., R.N., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Lee House, Dovercourt, 

Harwich, Essex. 
Mathews, W., Esq., M.A., F.G.S., 60, Harborne road, Birmingham. 
Matthews, C, Esq., F.E.S., Erme Wood, Ivy Bridge, S. Devon. 
Meiklejohn, Dr. J. W, S., F.L.S., 105, Holland road, Kensington, W. 
Melbourne Public Library. 
Mennell, H. T., Esq., F.L.S., 10, St. Dunstan's buildings, Idol lane, 

E.C. 
Michael, A. D., Esq., F.L.S., Cadogan Mansions, Sloane square, S.W. 
Microscopical Society, Royal, 20, Hanover square, W. 
Miller, J. C, Esq., Lynmouth House, Langley road, Elmers End, 

Beckenham, Kent, S.E. 
Mitchell Library, Glasgow. 

Mivart, Prof. St. Greorge J., F.R.S., Hurstcote, Chilworth, Surrey. 
Moore, Mrs. E. T., Holmfield, Oakholme road, Sheffield. 
Munich Royal Library, Munich. 



Neave, B. W., Esq., F.E.S., Lyndhurst, Queen's road, Brownswood 

park, N. 
Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Newman, T. P., Esq., F.Z.S., 54, Hatton garden, E.C. 
Noble, Capt. Jesmond Dene House, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Noble, Wilson, Esq., 43, Warrior square, St. Leonard's-on-Sea. 
Norfolk and Norwich Library, Norwich. 
Norman, Rev. A. Merle, M.A , F.L.S., Burnmoor Rectory, Fencehouses, 

Durham. 
Nottingham Free Library. 
Nottingham Naturalists' Society, per F. R. Jackson, Esq., Hon. Sec, 

2, Stratford square, Shakespeare street, Nottingham. 



Oldfield, G. W., Esq., M.A., F.L.S., 21, Longridge road, Earl's Court, 

S.W. 
Oliver, Dr. J., F.R.S.Edin., 13, Gordon square, W.C. 
Owens College, Manchester. 
Oxford, Magdalen College. 



Paisley Philosophical Institute, Paisley. 

Paris National Library, per Messrs. Longmans. 

Pascoe, F. P., Esq., F.L.S., 1, Burlington road, Westbourne Park, W. 

Pearce, W. G., 187, Caledonian road, King's Cross, N. 

Peckover, Algernon, Esq., F.L.S., Wisbeach. 

Peel Park Library, Salford, Lancashire. 

Penzance Public Library. 

Perthshire Society of Natural Science, Museum, Tay street, Perth. 

Phene, J. S., Esq., LL.D., F.S.A., 5, Carlton terrace, Oakley street, S.W. 

Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, U.S.A. 

Pierce, F. Nelson, Esq., F.E.S., 143, Smithdown lane, Liverpool. 

Plymouth Institution, Athenaeum, Plymouth. 

Pole-Carew, Miss C. L., Antony, Torpoint, Devonport. 

Porritt, G. T., Esq., F.L.S., Greenfield House, Huddersfield. 

Poulton, E. B., Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Wykeham House, Oxford. 

Power, H., Esq., M.B.Lond., F.L.S., President Ophthal. Soc, 37a, 

Great Cumberland place, Hyde Park, W. 
Preston Free Public Library. 
Pye-Smith, Dr. P. H., F.R.S., 54, Harley street, Cavendish square, "W*. 



Quekett Microscopical Club, University College, W.C. 



Radcliffe Library, Oxford. 

Radford, D., Esq., Mount Tavy, Tavistock, Devon. 

Rashleigh, J., Esq., Menabilly, Par Station, Cornwall. 

Reader, Thomas, Esq., Beaufort House, 125, Peckham Rye, S.E. 

Reynell, Miss, 8, Henrietta Street, Dublin. 

Ripon, Marquis of, F.R.S., F.L.S., 9, Chelsea Embankment, S.W. 

Roberts, Dr. L., B,uabon, North Wales. 

Robinson, Rev. F., The Rectory, Castle Eden, Co. Durham. 

Robinson, Isaac, Esq., The Wash, Hertford. 

Roper, F. C. S., Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S., Palgrave House, Eastbourne. 



15 

Royal Institution, Albemarle street, W. 
Royal Society, Burlington House, London, W. 
Rowe, J. B., Esq., F.L.S., Castle Barbican, Plympton, S. Devon. 
Rylands, T. G., Esq., F.L.S., Local Secretary, High Fields, Thelwall, 
near Warrington. 

Salter, Dr. S. J. A., F.R.S., Basingfield, near Basingstoke, Hants. 

Salvin, Osbert, Esq., F.R.S., 10, Chandos street, Cavendish square. 

Samson and Wallin, Messrs., London. 

Sanders, Alfred, Esq., F.L.S., Firenze, Sandford road, Bromley, 
Kent. 

Sanford, W. A., Esq., F.G.S., Nynehead Court, near Wellington, 
Somersetshire. 

Science and Art Department, South Kensington. 

Sclater,P.L.,Esq.,M.A.,Ph.D.,F.R.S.,F.L.S., 11, Hanover square, W. 

Sharpus, F. W., Esq., 30, Compton road, Islington, N. 

Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society. 

Shillitoe, B., Esq., 2, Frederick place, Old Jewry, E.C. 

Sion College Library, Victoria Embankment, W.C. 

Slack, H. I., Esq., F.G.S., Ashdown Cottage, Forest row, Sussex. 

Sladen, Rev. C. A., The Gore, Bournemouth. 

Slatter, T. J., Esq., F.G.S., The Drift, Evesham. 

Smith, Basil Woodd, Esq., F.S.A., Branch hill, Hampstead, N.W. 

Smith, F. W., Esq., Hollywood, Lewisham hill, S.E. 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Taunton. 

Sotheran, Messrs., 136, Strand, W.C. 

South London Entomological Society, The Bridge House, London 
Bridge. 

South London Microscopical Club, care of J. Guardia, Esq., Helston 
House, Rozel road, Clapham, S.W. 

South, R., Esq., F.E.S., 12, Abbey gardens, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

Southport Free Library. 

Spicer, Messrs., Brothers, 19, New Bridge street, Blackfriars, E.C. 

St. Andrew's University Library, St. Andrew's. 

Stearns, A. E., Esq., F.E.S., New Mills College, Henley-on-Thames. 

Stebbing, Rev. T. R. R., Ephraim Lodge, The Common, Tunbridge 
Wells. 

Stedman, A., Esq., M.R.C.S., L.S.A., L.M., The Croft, Great Book- 
ham, Leatherhead. 

Stevens, B. F., Esq., 4, Trafalgar square, W.C. 



16 

Stewart, Prof. C, Pres. Lin. Soc, Royal College of Surgeons, 

Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C. 
Stockholm Royal Academy, Stockholm. 
Straher, J. H., Esq., Stagshaw House, Corbridge-on-Tyne. 
Strasbourgh University Library. 

Stubbins, J., Esq., F.G.S., Dyson House, Burley Woods, Leeds. 
Sunderland Subscription Library. 
Swanston, W., Esq., F.G.S., 50, King street, Belfast. 

Thompson, J. C, Esq., F.L.S., F.R.M.S., Woodstock, Waverley road, 

Liverpool. 
Thornewell, Rev. C. F., F.E.S., Vicarage, Bakewell. 
Toronto, University of, Canada. 

Torquay Natural History Society, Museum, Babbacombe road, Torquay. 
Townsend, F., Esq.,M.A., M.P., F.L.S., Honington Hall, Shipston-on- 

Stour. 
Trimble, Mrs. James, The Terrace, Royal Dockyard, Chatham. 
Triibner & Co., Messrs., London. 

Tugwell, W. H., Esq., 6, Lewisham road, Greenwich, S.E. 
Turner, Professor Sir William, F.R.S.E., University of Edinburgh. 
Tyler, Captain Charles, F.L.S., F.G.S., Elberton, New West End, 

Hampstead, N.W. 

University College, London. 
Upsala, University of, Sweden. 

Vicars, John, Esq., 8, St. Alban's square, Bootle, Liverpool. 
Vicary, William, Esq., The Priory, Colleton crescent, Exeter. 
Vinen, Dr. E. Hart, F.L.S., 22, Gordon road, Ealing, W. 



Waldegrave, Earl, 20, Bryanstone square, W. 

Walker, Alfred 0., Esq., F.L.S., Nant Glyn, Colwyn Bay, Denbighshire. 

Walsingham, Thomas de Grey, Lord, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., Merton 

Hall, Thetford, Norfolk. 
Warburg, J. C, Esq., 8, Porchester terrace, W. 
Warden, Dr. Charles, Greenhurst, 31, Newall street, Birmingham. 
Warrington Museum and Library, Warrington. 
Warwickshire Natural History Society, Warwick. 



17 

Washington Library of Congress, U.S.A. 

Watkinson Library, Harford, Con., U.S.A. 

Webb, S., Esq., Maidstone House, Dover. 

Wickes, W. D., Esq., 32, Darlington Gardens, Acton, W. 

Weir, J. J., Esq., F.L.S., Chirbury, Copers Cope road, Beckenham, 

Kent. 
Welter, Mons. H., 39, Rue Bonaparte, Paris. 
Wesley, E. F., Esq., A.K.C., 28, Essex street, Strand, W.C. 
West Kent Natural History Society, T. W. Wire, Esq., Hon. Treas., 

54, Crooms Hill, Greenwich, S.E. 
Wheeler, F. D., Esq., LL.D., F.E.S., Paragon House School, Norwich. 
Whittle, F. G., Esq., 6, Lothbury, E.C. 
Wilson, Mrs., Cwmffrwd, Carmarthen. 
Wiltshire, Rev. Professor T., M.A., F.L.S., Treas. G.S., Secretary, 

25, Granville park, Lewisham, London, S.E. 
Wollaston, G. H., Esq., 4, College road, Clifton, near Bristol. 
Wood, J. H., Esq., M.B., Tarrington, Ledbury. 
Woodd, B. T., Esq., Conyngham Hall, Knaresborough, Yorkshire. 
Wright, Professor E. P., F.L.S., Trinity College, Dublin. 



Yale College, New Haven, U.S. 

Yglias, H. R., Esq., 121, Ebury street, Eaton square, S.W. 

York Philosophical Society, York. 



Zoological Society, 11, Hanover square, W. 



B 



LIST OF THE ANNUAL VOLUMES 



OF THE 



RAY SOCIETY. 



EEOM THEIE COMMENCEMENT, IN 1844, TO 

MAY, 1893. 



LIST OF THE ANNUAL VOLUMES ISSUED 
BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 



For the First Year, 1844. 

I. Reports on the Progress of Zoology and Botany. Trans- 

lated by H. E. Strickland, Jun., M.A., F.R.S., E. Lan- 
kester, M.D., F.R.S., and W. B. Macdonald, B.A. 8vo. 

II. Memorials of John Ray: consisting of the Life of John 

Ray, by Derham; the Biographical Notice of Ray, by 
Baron Cuvier and M. Dupetit Thouars, in the f Biographie 
Universelle ; ' Life of Ray, by Sir J. E. Smith : the Itine- 
raries of Ray, with Notes, by Messrs. Babington and 
Yarrell. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., F.R.S. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part I. Ten Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Second Year, 1845. 

I. Steenstrup on the Alternation of Generations. Translated 

from the German, by George Busk, F.R.S. Three Plates. 
8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part II. Thirteen 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



22 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 

III. Reports and Papers on Botany, consisting of Translations 
from the German. Translated by W. B. Macdonald, B.A. ; 
G. Busk, F.R.S.; A. Henfrey, F.R.S. ; and J. Hudson, 
B.M. Seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Third Year, 1846. 

I. Meyen's Geography of Plants. Translated from the German 

by Miss Margaret Johnston. 8vo. 

II. Burmeister on the Organization of Trilobites. Translated 

from the German, and edited by Professors T. Bell and 
E. Forbes. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part III. Eleven 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the. Fourth Year, 1847. 

I. Oken's Elements of Physio-philosophy. Translated from 

the German by Alfred Tulk. 8vo. 

II. Reports on the Progress of Zoology. Translated from the 

German by Messrs. Geo. Busk, A. H. Haliday, and A. 
Tulk. 8vo. 

III. A Synopsis of the British Naked-eyed Pulmograde Medusae. 
By Professor E. Forbes, F.R.S. Thirteen Plates. Imp. 
4to. 



For the Fifth Year, 1848. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologias. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. I. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE BAY SOCIETY. 23 

II. Letters of John Ray. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., 

F.R.S. Two Plates. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part IV. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Sixth Year, 1849. 

I. Reports and Papers on Vegetable Physiology and Botanical 

Geography. Edited by A. Henfrey, F.R.S. Three Plates. 
8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Entomostracous Crustacea. 

By W. Baird, M.D., F.R.S. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 



For the Seventh Year, 1850. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. II. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part V. Fifteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Eighth Year, 1851. 

I. A Monograph of the British Angiocarpous Lichens. By the 

Rev. W. A. Leighton, M.A. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. I. Ten Plates. 8vo. 



24 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Ninth Year, 1852. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. III. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VI. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Tenth Year, 1853. 

I. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. II. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Volume of Botanical and Physiological Memoirs, in- 

cluding Braun on Rejuvenescence in Nature. Six Plates. 
8vo. 



For the Eleventh Year, 1854. 

Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. IV. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 



For the Twelfth Year, 1855. 

A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. By 
Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VII. Nine Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



For the Thirteenth Year, 1856. 

A Monograph of the British Fresh-water Polyzoa. By Pro- 
fessor Allman, F.R.S. Eleven Plates. Imp. 4to. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 25 



For the Fourteenth Year, 1857. 

A Monograph of the Recent Foraminifera of Great Britain. 
By Professor Williamson, F.R.S. Seven Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Fifteenth Year, 1858. 

The Oceanic Hydrozoa. By Professor Huxley, F.R.S. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Sixteenth Year, 1859. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. Imp. 
4to. 



For the Seventeenth Year, 1860. 

An Introduction to the Study of the Foraminifera. By W. B. 
Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c, assisted by W. K. 
Parker, F.R.S., and T. Rupert Jones, F.G.S. Twenty- 
two Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Eighteenth Year, 1861. 

On the Germination, Development, and Fructification of the 
Higher Cryptogamia, and on the Fructification of the 
Coniferse. By Dr. Wilhelm Hofmeister. Translated by 
Frederick Currey, M.A., F.R.S., Sec. L.S. Sixty-five 
Plates. 8vo. 



26 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Nineteenth Year, 1862. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part II. Seventeen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



For the Twentieth Year, 1863. 

The Reptiles of British India. By Albert C. L. G. Gunther, 
M.D., F.R.S. Twenty-six Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Twenty-first Year, 1864. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. I. Thirty-seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-second Year, 1865. 

I. The British Hemiptera Heteroptera. By Messrs. J. W. 

Douglas and John Scott. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bower- 

bank, LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-third Year, 1866. 

I. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 
D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. I, containing Geographico-botanical, 
and Structural, and Physiological Memoirs. Edited by 
J. J. Bennett, F.R.S. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 27 

II. Recent Memoirs on the Cetacea. By Professors Eschricht, 

Reinhardt, and Lilljeborg. Edited by W. H. Flower, 
F.R.S. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. Nitzch's Pterylography, translated from the German. 
Edited by P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Twenty-fourth Year, 1867. 

I. A Monograph on the Structure and Development of the 

Shoulder-girdle. By W. K. Parker, F.R.S. Thirty Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-fifth Year, 1868. 

I. Vegetable Teratology. By M. T. Masters, M.D., F.L.S. 

8vo. 

II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. III. Thirty-eight Plates. Imp. 4to. 
(Completing the work.) 



For the Twenty-sixth Year, 1869. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Twenty- seventh Year, 1870. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part II. Eleven Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



28 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Twenty-eighth Year, 1871. 

A Monograph of the Collembola and Thysanura. By Sir J. 
Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.It.S. Seventy-eight Plates. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-ninth Year, 1872. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.It.S. E. Part I. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Thirtieth Year, 1873. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. continued. Thirteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Thirty-first Year, 1874. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
LL.D., F.It.S. Vol. III. Ninety-two Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-second Year, 1875. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.It.S. Vol. I. Forty-two Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-third Year, 1876. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. I. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE EAY SOCIETY. 29 



For the Thirty-fourth Year, 1877. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S, Vol. II. Fifty Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-fifth Year, 1878. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. II. Forty- nine Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-sixth Year, 1879. 

I. A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 

M.D., F.L.S. Vol. III. Eleven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the work.) 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By the late 

J. S. Bowerbank, LL.D., F.R.S. Edited, with additions, 
by Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A., F.L.S. Vol. IV. Seven- 
teen Plates. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 



For the Thirty-seventh Year, 1880. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. III. Twenty-eight Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-eighth Year, 1881. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. 
By P. Cameron. Vol. I. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 



30 LIST OF VOLUMES ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 



For the Thirty-ninth Year, 1882* 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. IV. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the Work.) 



For the Fortieth Year, 1883. 

British Oribatidse. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. I. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-first Year, 1884. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron. Vol. II. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-second Year, 1885. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton. Vol. I. The 
Butterflies. Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-third Year, 1886. 

The Larvse of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton. Vol. II. The 
Hawk-Moths and part of the Bombyces. Eighteen 
Plates. 8vo. 



LIST OP VOLUMES ISSUED BY THE RAT SOCIETY. 31 



For the Forty-fourth Year, 1887. 

British Oribatidae. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. II. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. (Completing the Work.) 



For the Forty-fifth Year, 1888. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton. Vol. III. The 
concluding portion of the Bombyces. Eighteen Plates. 
8vo. 



For the Forty-sixth Year, 1889. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron. Vol. III. Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-seventh Year, 1890. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton. Vol. IV. The 
first portion of the Noctuae. Sixteen Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-eighth Year, 1891. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited (in part) by the late H. T. Stainton. 
Vol. V. The second portion of the Noctuae. Seventeen 
Plates. 8vo. 



32 LIST OF VOLUMES ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 



For the Forty-ninth Year, 1892. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron. Vol. IV. Nineteen Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the Work.) 



PRINTED BY ADLARD AND SON, 
BABTHOBOMEW CLOSE, E.C., AND 20, HANOVER SQUARE, W. 






: • ■ . ■ 

&wA*£*A 

; : ■ - ... . .■ - . -. ■ 

;• a - i P .-;-," 

•••■•....-■ 






■til 



■ ■ -'.v; 



&\y&v . 



\; '/■>., . - * , . , L~* * . / .*- *AAa\ SJAAAAAAAAAa AAAAAAAAa*4*A4** % A 

■ A*AwAv . / SAa*Aa*AAAAAAA AA AAAAAAAAAA** A** A a 4 a . . ! A*/**j*AvAMi 1 -V//,V. V.V '.<,*.* *. */.*.*.' ' 

//"AwAwA'AV/,.'.*. . . r . . .'. : .',', . . 

'/AwA S*V,; v % < /^-*-**VaVT*V* AAAA&AAAAAAf^AAAAAAAAAAAAAM^AAAAAAAA** .'/.V*V, V/// : 



^'AwivAwAViWiVAwA^A^sv ^^^^^^^^^ < A'^ , /'^^^^-////• 

^VAVAVAVA^/AVA < A%vA-A*Av<Vi , /AV^-/Av//i/iS<^ * i^^ r i^^^V ////// ' 
*iwr^/AvJvA^w/rAvAw/A'A''A v // .. . - * rAA AAA A AAA** A A** A A iVAvA\ 
.wA^A^AwAvAvAyAvA'A * A-AAAAAAAA 4 V/- , 



AAAvAAAAAAAAA* *. * . //. , , ////*•/* A^WiWA < A < AWi < A < A < / < A'« < //A /A'.'^rA'/A'// , L* 

; -v Ai WAvA^wAW^WAvAviSV/AwAv^wAvAV . ■-V*V/*V*V////V<V./.V.V.V.V, 1 t /.,/ . 

, . . /< 4* a* A AAA AAA A* A'/A'A'AwA'/i\ t AAAAAAAAA4 4} AAAA***AAAA*AAAAA*4 i AAAAA 4 AAAAAA*AA ii AAAA*AA 4 AA*A*A*AAAA*A*AA t A 

t*JvU*AwAAAAAAA£AA^ " 

^jOn^A^AAAAAAAAA^A^AAAAA^AAA*- • '/AVAwA^AvA- % .V* . V// . /. . . '.'■ . -/.V/,',. ' 



fife 



//^^MAAAAA/AJAJ///A/ 

rfajwdadfa^aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa •**..<«•-.#*/ 

idiKwjfldrdrdrfAAAAAAAAAAA t*AAAA* % 

"AAAAJwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 

-.-■-- ......./■- .-.,.. AvjVA Aj Av/A ■ ■ ,....". ■ .".'.' A / ; ■ , -,' 

-• - • ■ . v -v.. .... . . /. ,/. v ,-. ■■'.'- •■ / \ ; . • ////^/.'/.'^/^v*//; .*/.,...,.. .. ; . *,•*///('.«.■. - '.. . '. 

(W/WWftwAvAV^/AvYA'Av/AvAvAV/i\ 

*d9dri4F2*dt*J , AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA , . . .. ■,***>'-' *'<*»*»* ' *'**'.*.* *.*.*.' / ' 

/AvAw/AwASyAW/Av7//A'<*^/v - - ivAwAViVAVAvAVAwAVAVAVAVAV 

• sAAAAAAAAA4'AAAAAAAAa'4*AAAAAAa\s/ * . //. / ,,■.,,-. , c**AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA4*AAAAAA. 

AvA'A^^V^AvAwAvAwA'iVi 



-AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A A AAA £ 

\A-AAAAA-AAAA'AAAA4A-AAAA4^AAAAt^AAAAAA4 K A4 k AAAAAAAAAAAA4*sAAAAAAAAAAAAs i AAa^A*4AAAJ . , 
l 4^AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA4^A 

-,- '/,■'.-.•; ;■/ /- - ■ A ■-■//■' '>■.■•.•,-■■,- ,■•• • ■ 



^/^JQ^AAa^AAAAAA/AA 

wAAA-AAAA^A&*AAAAAi*AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA* ■ ^AAa^AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAASSASSS,- 'AAAAAAAAAA 

y4TAAA4vAA4^AAlAAAAAAA4^AAAA4*4 < * a \ A A A A a s A A A A , */. . . SsAtAAfSAfAAAAAAS.tS/S.AAAASttASAStAAS...*.,****. 

A%w/Aw///iwAV//A^'iV//A\v*\ * //A //f^ < /A^ , /// /A * 

'AAAXAAAA-AAA-AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAti-AAs^AiAAAAi AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA'AA AAAAAAAAAA ■ s > 

AA&A^AAAfflAA 

*^4rAPjFArjTAf t ^4r^A/*A'~j~d~A^^A 4 J A A 4 ~J •*** -A~ m^A^a'a^A-* * A ATA a -a'a'Aa A* a* A* A J A A A A A A A A * A % AT A A A t* A 4 A A A A A A A A A A * A A A A A A A* . A A Am A Am 

"aaaaaaaaaa « ' */, , 

a^ka^^a^aaa-aa^aaaaaaaaa . 

p2v*AAAAA*A&AAA-A^AAAAAAAAA4*AAa*4*AAA-A4-AAA4^ , 

<&AAAAA^A2*AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA4*A**AAAAAAAAAa*a*AAAAAAAa*AA4*4*aAaa-aa/-Aa^ ■ ■ . Am^m < m' .'»• 

f^^ApAAAjAfAfAAAAAw < AAAAA* . 

Wa&AAW^AaTAAa?&AAmAAAAAAAAAA4*A4*As*AAAAm >AAAa A*A*4*A*4*A A A AA**Aa*/a*SAa*Aa 4 A*a*a 4 A A A < A*, < A i A t A t M t AA*4AA t A t A < 4 l A t //s i t 4 * A . . i l A a* A .* , .* A V 

F4ffl-AmWA&AJMAA£-Ard'm A AAAAA 

.:-.'..'::../■■ . . ■ .;■/-.■ ■//•,-.-/ ..-■-./.■■ ::'•>•.•.-.-.'. ..-■.■.■.<>.■,•, .- • -• v>// ■;-:-/ ■'. • • -, . /;,•■'•.•'-. 







\A4$ilArAr£rAA-4r-AAAA/AAAAAAAAAAAAA*AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA*A*AAA \ 



:■:■////// -y-/.- •/ 






f/S/S/S/A'/A'jsAA'A'A*' /A'< 
.'/ //,'///,'/ ■.'//''' '/A ' ■{'•'' 
" ''///■'//.'/.•V/A ,/'''' ''''' '•'■'. 
%